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中国组织工程研究  
 
 
2019 Vol.23 No.10
Published:2019-04-08

组织工程骨及软骨材料 tissue-engineered bone and cartilage materials
组织工程口腔材料 tissue-engineered oral materials
药物控释材料 drug delivery materials
细胞外基质材料 extracellular matrix materials
材料生物相容性 material biocompatibility
材料力学及表面改性 material mechanics and surface modification
生物材料循证医学 evidence-based medicine of biomaterials
生物材料综述 biomaterial review
      组织工程骨及软骨材料 tissue-engineered bone and cartilage materials
A bone filling mesh container for treating senile osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures combined with intravertebral cleft sign
Xu Yong, Guan Zhong, Li Yongxia, Chen Feng. A bone filling mesh container for treating senile osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures combined with intravertebral cleft sign[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1477-1482.

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous vertebroplasty is an effective method for osteoporotic thoracic vertebral compression fracture, but bone cement leakage is easy to occur in patients with intravertebral cleft.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic efficacy of bone-filling mesh containers in elderly patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures combined with intravertebral cleft sign.
METHODS: From October 2017 to July 2018, 62 patients aged from 60 to 80 years with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures combined with intravertebral cleft sign were admitted at the Affiliated Hospital of Qinghai University. Among them, 31 cases were treated with unilateral percutaneous vertebroplasty (control group), and the other 31 cases were treated with bone-filling mesh containers (study group). The leakage of bone cement, the time of operation and the times of fluoroscopy were recorded in the two groups. The visual analogue scale score and Oswestry disability index score were compared between the two groups before and 7, 30, 60 days after treatment. The height changes of injured vertebrae were evaluated by X-ray before treatment and 7 days after treatment. The quality of life was evaluated by the MOS item short from health survey (SF-36) before and 60 days after treatment.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The time of operation and the times of fluoroscopy in the study group were less than those in the control group (P < 0.05), and the leakage rate of bone cement in the study group was lower than that in the control group (6% vs. 39%, P < 0.05). (2) The visual analogue scale score and Oswestry disability index score of the two groups were significantly improved at 7, 30 and 60 days after treatment. The visual analogue scale scores of the study group were lower than those of the control group at different time points after treatment (P < 0.05). There was no difference in Oswestry disability index scores between the two groups at different time points after treatment (P > 0.05). (3) The height of injured vertebrae 7 days after treatment in both groups was significantly higher than that before treatment (P < 0.05), and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). (4) The quality of life of the two groups was significantly improved at 60 days after treatment (P < 0.05), but there was no difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that compared with unilateral vertebroplasty with bone cement injection, bone-filling mesh containers with bone cement injection could reduce the incidence of cement leakage, relieve pain and increase the height of injured vertebrae in elderly patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture combined with intravertebral cleft sign.中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程
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Three-dimensional culture of chondrocytes/3D-printed composite scaffolds under compression loading
Lin Xianglong, Gao Lilan, Li Ruixin, Cheng Wei, Zhang Yang, Zhang Chunqiu, Zhang Xizheng. Three-dimensional culture of chondrocytes/3D-printed composite scaffolds under compression loading[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1483-1488.

BACKGROUND: The silk fibroin/type II collagen composite scaffold has been prepared by low-temperature bio-3D printing technology in the previous study and the scaffold has good mechanical properties. Studies have shown that mechanical stimulation is beneficial to bone remodeling, and gradient loading strain is beneficial to the activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

OBJECTIVE: To co-culture silk fibroin/type II collagen composite scaffolds with chondrocytes under compression loading, to observe the proliferation of cells, and to observe the preliminary repair effect of silk fibroin/type II collagen composite scaffold on cartilage defects.
METHODS: The silk fibroin/type II collagen composite scaffold was prepared by low-temperature 3D printing to detect the porosity of the scaffold. The passage 3 mouse chondrocytes ADTC-5 were inoculated on the silk fibroin/type II collagen composite scaffold and cultured under static culture and mechanical load respectively. (1) Static culture: blank scaffold was set as control, and cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 days of inoculation. (2) Culture under mechanical load: blank scaffold was set as control. At 1 day after inoculation, 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% compressive strains were applied to the cell-scaffold complex, and continued to load for 3 days. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT assay, and the distribution, adhesion and morphology of the cells on the scaffold were observed by scanning electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining. A cartilage defect of 3.5 mm in diameter was made in the bilateral knee joint of New Zealand rabbits. The silk fibroin/type II collagen composite scaffold was implanted onto the left side, and no material was implanted onto the right side. The repair site was observed at 8 weeks after surgery.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The porosity of the scaffold was (89.3±3.26)%, which was conducive to cell attachment. (2) After 5 days of static culture, the chondrocytes proliferated well on the surface of the composite scaffold. Under 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% compressive strains, the cell proliferation on the scaffold first increased and then decreased, wherein the cell proliferation was highest under 10% compressive strain, and lowest under 20% compressive strain. (4) Under the scanning electron microscopy, the chondrocytes in the 0% load group were distributed in the surface of the scaffold with irregularities, the cell morphology was obvious, and the cell protrusions were fully extended. There were few or no chondrocytes on the contact surface of the 10% load group, and more cells distributed on the lateral and internal surfaces of the first layer, but the cell morphology was flat with obvious protrusions. (5) Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the chondrocytes in the 0% load group were concentrated on the surface of the scaffold, and there were almost no cells in the pores, while the chondrocytes in the 10% load group were distributed in the scaffold pores. (6) There was still a circular defect model with no scaffold implantation, and no obvious repair appeared; similar hyaline cartilage appeared in the defect after scaffold implantation, but there was no adhesion to the surrounding defected cartilage, and the new hyaline cartilage was independent. Overall, the adsorption, proliferation and growth of chondrocytes on the silk fibroin-type II collagen scaffolds is better when the compressive strain is 10%, and the composite scaffold can be used as a repair material for cartilage defects.

 

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Bone cement distribution form and diffusion degree after percutaneous vertebroplasty: an analysis based on Mimics software and its clinical significance
Yuan Dechao, Wu Chao, Deng Jiayan, Tan Lun, Lin Xu, Wang Xiangyu . Bone cement distribution form and diffusion degree after percutaneous vertebroplasty: an analysis based on Mimics software and its clinical significance[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1507-1513.

BACKGROUND: It has been found that the distribution and diffusion degree of bone cement are the main factors influencing the clinical effect of percutaneous vertebroplasty.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of analyzing bone cement distribution form and diffusion degree based on Mimics software, and to evaluate the relationship of clinical efficacy with bone cement distribution form and diffusion degree.
METHODS: A total of 170 cases of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture admitted to Zigong No. 4 People’s Hospital from January 2017 to March 2018 were included, including 41 cases of males and 129 cases of females aged 60-97 years. All of them were treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty. X-ray and CT examination were done at postoperative 2 days, and the bone cement distribution was classified into five types based on the distribution of bone cement in X-ray images, including type I (most cement continuously and evenly distributed in the vertebral body), type II (most cement distributed in the central vertebral bodies), type III (most cement distributed on both sides of vertebral body), type IV (most cement distribution at the side of the vertebral bodies and the central), type V (most cement distribution at the side of the vertebral body). Mimics project files were created based on CT image data to calculate bone cement volume and diffusion volume. After 6 months of follow-up, visual analogue scale score, Oswestry disability index and Cobb angle were compared among groups to analyze the relationship between bone cement distribution, bone cement diffusion volume, bone cement diffusion volume ratio and clinical efficacy.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The visual analogue scale score and Oswestry disability index of the five types of bone cements were significantly improved at 2 days and 6 months after surgery compared with preoperative data (P < 0.05), the Cobb angle of the type I group was significantly improved compared with preoperative data (P < 0.05), and the Cobb angles of the type II-V groups showed no difference from the preoperative data (P > 0.05). (2) The diffusion volume of bone cement was (6.69±1.19) mL, and the diffusion volume ratio of bone cement was (20.93±3.13)%. There was no correlation between the volume of bone cement injection and the visual analogue scale score, Oswestry disability index and Cobb angle at 2 days and 6 months after surgery. There was a negative correlation between the bone cement dispersion volume and the visual analogue scale score at 6 months after surgery, and the Oswestry disability index score at 2 days and 6 months after surgery (P < 0.05), but the correlation was weak. The diffusion volume ratio of bone cement was negatively correlated with the visual analogue scale score and Oswestry disability index score at 2 days and 6 months after surgery (P < 0.05), showing a strong correlation. These findings show that, based on the three-dimensional reconstruction function of Mimics software, the diffusion volume and diffusion volume ratio of bone cement can be accurately calculated. The bone cement evenly distributed can alleviate the local kyphosis. The diffusion volume ratio of bone cement is positively correlated with clinical efficacy, which is more valuable than the volume of bone cement. 
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Beta-tricalcium phosphate combined with advanced platelet-rich fibrin contributes to bone regeneration: X-ray and immunohistochemical analysis
Zheng Rui, Xie Jing, Lu Shuai, Sun Yong. Beta-tricalcium phosphate combined with advanced platelet-rich fibrin contributes to bone regeneration: X-ray and immunohistochemical analysis[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1514-1519.

BACKGROUND: It has been proved that various bone substitute materials combined with blood derivatives contribute to osteogenesis. At present, no relevant reports have been reported on the combination of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) combined with advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) in the repair of bone defects.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the characteristics and effects of β-TCP combined with A-PRF for repair of bone defects.
METHODS: Thirty-nine Japanese big ear rabbits (provided by the Chengdu Dashuo Experimental Animal Center in China) were randomly divided into A-PRF group (n=12), β-TCP group (n=12), composite group (n=12), and blank control group (n=3). A 6.0 mm×8.0 mm cylindrical critical bone defect was made on the lateral femoral condyle of each side of hind legs of each rabbit and filled in with different materials in corresponding groups, respectively. No implantation was done in the blank control group. The whole femur of each rat was taken at 1, 2 and 3 months after implantation, and X-ray films were taken as well as receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin immunohistochemical analysis.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Over time, X-ray films showed high-density shadow in the bone defect area in the A-PRF group, and there was a centripetal growth trend from the edge of bone defect to the center, while in the β-TCP group and composite group, there was a centripetal decrease trend from the edge to the center of the bone defect, and finally the density was close to natural bone or consistent to the surrounding bone tissues. (2) Receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B ligand and osteoprotegerin immunohistochemical analysis showed a positive expression in all the groups. The order of the mean absorbance value in the four groups was as follows: the composite group > β-TCP group > A-PRF group > blank group, all of which were statistically significant (P < 0.05). To conclude, β-TCP combined with A-PRF has a better osteogenic effect than individual use.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Feasibility of repairing articular cartilage defects with particulated juvenile cartilage allograft
You Qi, Duan Xiaojun, Zhang Jun, Jin Ying, Peng Xu, Ge Zhen, Liu Yi. Feasibility of repairing articular cartilage defects with particulated juvenile cartilage allograft[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1520-1525.

BACKGROUND: Particulated juvenile cartilage allograft is simple and easy to obtain, and relevant clinical studies are underway in the USA. However, how the transplanted juvenile cartilage fragments exert biological effects through biochemical mechanisms and genetic signal transduction is still unclear. There is as yet no report on this technology in China.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility of articular cartilage defects repaired with particulated juvenile cartilage allograft.
METHODS: The cartilage fragments were obtained from juvenile Pitman-Moore strains (provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of the Army Medical University in China) and cultured in vitro. Brdu immunofluorescence assay was performed at 1, 3, and 7 days of culture. The particulated juvenile cartilage allograft/fibrin gel composites were subcutaneously transplanted into the SCID rats (provided by the Laboratory Animal Center of the Army Medical University). The specimens were taken for hematoxylin-eosin staining, safranin O staining and immunohistochemistry after 1 month. Cartilage defects of 8 mm in diameter were made in the knee joint of 10 adult Pitman-Moore strains (Laboratory Animal Center of the Army Medical University), and were randomized into two groups, which were then transplanted with the particulated juvenile cartilage allograft/fibrin gel composites (experimental group) or nothing (control group). The specimens were taken for hematoxylin-eosin staining, safranin O fast green staining, toluidine blue and immunohistochemistry at 3 months after transplantation.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Little Brdu incorporation was detected in juvenile cartilage fragments at 1 day of culture, some Brdu incorporation was defected at 3 days of culture. At 7 days of culture, a progressive increase in the Brdu signal was detected in chondrocytes within the cultured cartilage fragments, which seemed to localize along the tissue edge. At 1 month after subcutaneous transplantation, the particulated juvenile cartilage allograft still survived and were surrounded by few proliferative chondrocytes. There was no obvious tissue repair in the control group at 3 months after transplantation. In the experimental group, there was obvious tissue repair, the color of the newly formed tissues was similar to the normal cartilage tissue, which integrated well with the surrounding normal cartilage tissue, and the cells distributed evenly. These results imply that particulated juvenile cartilage allograft can achieve good results in repairing articular cartilage defects.

 

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      组织工程口腔材料 tissue-engineered oral materials
Three-dimensional finite element analysis of extrusion of the maxillary canine during orthodontic treatment with invisible aligner without brackets
Tian Shancan, Bai Rui, Xu Xiaomei, Huang Yue, Zhang Li, Yu Xingyue, Cheng Qian . Three-dimensional finite element analysis of extrusion of the maxillary canine during orthodontic treatment with invisible aligner without brackets[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1489-1495.

BACKGROUND: With the advancement of science and technology, invisible aligner without brackets have emerged. However, this new type of digital orthodontic technology is rarely reported on its biomechanics.

OBJECTIVE: By the use of rectangular attachments of different sizes and different bonding positions, to obtain different force of canines and the stress supporting of periodontal tissue during the extrusion movement, providing reference for the clinical use of rectangular attachment in the orthodontic treatment of low canine tooth.
METHODS: A three-dimensional finite element model of appliance-attachments-canine-periodontium-cancellous bone-cortical bone was established based on the scan data of the isolated canine. The attachments were set in different directions (vertical, horizontal), sizes (3, 4, 5 mm in height) and positions (in the occlusal side of the crown center, in the gingival side of the crown center). The 0.25-mm forced occlusal displacement was loaded to observe the deformation and equivalent stress of the tooth and periodontal membrane.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) If the size of rectangular attachment increases, the force of the tooth will grow in a certain range and the tooth will have better effect of extrusion with a larger level of tilt motion in other directions. (2) The extrusion effect of the horizontal attachment is better than that of the vertical attachment, which is more difficult to have distal incline, but is prone to lingual incline.

 

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Bacterial adhesion of SureFil SDR as a preventive resin filling
Xu Qunhao, Lu Yupu, Bai Yuhong. Bacterial adhesion of SureFil SDR as a preventive resin filling[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1496-1500.

BACKGROUND: SureFil SDR as a lining material has better adaptability and unique automatic leveling characteristics as compared with other flowing resins, but its application in preventive resin filling has not been reported.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the roughness and bacterial adhesion among pit and fissure sealant, Z350XT fluid resin and SureFil SDR resin, and to explore the feasibility of preventive resin filling with SureFil SDR resin.
METHODS: Pit and fissure sealant, Z350XT fluid resin and SureFil SDR resin were prepared into 8 mm×2 mm×2 mm cuboid specimens respectively. The surface roughness of the three specimens was measured by MarSurf roughness meter. Pit and fissure sealant, Z350XT fluid resin and SureFil SDR resin were prepared into 8 mm×8 mm×2 mm cylinder specimens respectively. The specimens were cultured in Streptococcus mutans suspension for 48 hours to detect the bacterial adhesion on the material surface.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The roughness of the three materials was ranked as follows: SureFil SDR resin < Z350XT fluid resin < pit and fissure sealant, and there were significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). The bacterial adhesion on the surface of the three materials was ranked as follows: SureFil SDR resin < Z350XT fluid resin < pit and fissure sealant, and there were significant difference between groups (P < 0.05). The correlation between roughness and bacterial adhesion was analyzed, and there was a high positive correlation between roughness and bacterial adhesion, indicating, with the decrease of material roughness, bacterial adhesion decreased (r=0.962, P=0.017 6). The results show that SureFil SDR is an ideal preventive resin filling and sealing material relative to pit and fissure sealant and Z350XT fluid resin.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Preparation, water absorption and solubility of a new Eucommia ulmoides gum composite soft denture liner
Luo Heng, Gao Hai, Xu Xuefei, Feng Yunzhi. Preparation, water absorption and solubility of a new Eucommia ulmoides gum composite soft denture liner[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1501-1506.

BACKGROUND: The most common soft liners currently used in the clinic are silicone rubbers and acrylics, but both of them have deficiencies. Therefore, the development of soft lining materials with stability, excellent performance, and antibacterial properties is of important clinical significance.

OBJECTIVE: To prepare a soft lining material with high elasticity on the basis of excellent characteristics of Eucommia ulmoides gum, and to preliminarily explore its water absorption and solubility.
METHODS: The basic formula was made based on the existing formula of elastic Eucommia ulmoides gum and medical rubber, in combination with the specific requirements of denture lining materials. The ratio of Eucommia ulmoides to butadiene rubber was set to be 10:90, 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 and 90:10, and the new Eucommia ulmoides gum composite soft denture liners were then prepared. Acrylate self-curing soft lining material and Silagum silicone rubber denture soft lining material served as controls. Afterwards, the samples were put into distilled water or artificial saliva for 7 and 30 days, and the value of water absorption and water solubility were calculated.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) In the artificial saliva for 7 and 30 days, the water absorption rate and solubility of samples in different ratio groups were close to those in the Silagum group, but extremely lower than those in the acrylate group. (2) In the distilled water for 7 and 30 days, the water absorption rate and solubility of samples in different ratio groups were close to those in the Silagum group, but extremely lower than those in the acrylate group. (3) The water absorption rate and solubility of the acrylate group were significantly higher than those in the other groups at 7 and 30 days of immersion in the artificial saliva or distilled water (P < 0.05). (4) After 7 and 30 days of immersion, the water absorption rate of the same sample in the artificial saliva was significantly lower than that in the distilled water. Wile at 7 days of immersion, the samples in the 30:70 and 50:50 groups showed a lower solubility in the artificial saliva than in the distilled water (P < 0.05), and at 30 days of immersion, the samples in the 30:70, 50:50, 70:30 and 90:10 groups showed a lower solubility in the artificial saliva than in the distilled water (P < 0.05). (5) In the artificial saliva, there was no significant difference in the solubility in the 50:50 and 70:30 groups at 7 and 30 days of immersion (P > 0.05), while the solubility in the other groups exhibited significant differences at different observational times (P < 0.05). In the distilled water, there was no significant difference in the solubility in the 10:90 and 30:70 groups at 7 and 30 days of immersion (P > 0.05), while the solubility in the other groups exhibited significant differences at different observational times (P < 0.05). To conclude, the water absorption of Eucommia ulmoides gum composite soft denture liner is close to Silagum, but significantly less than that of acrylate soft lining materials, and the solubility remains at a very low level.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Preparation and evaluation of fish skin acellular dermal matrix for oral guided tissue regeneration
Wang Yuanyuan, Song Wenshan, Yu Dejun, Dai Yuankun, Li Bafang. Preparation and evaluation of fish skin acellular dermal matrix for oral guided tissue regeneration[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1526-1532.

BACKGROUND: Current oral restoration membranes are expensive with a potential risk of zoonotic virus, so new membranes are in need.

OBJECTIVE: To prepare fish skin acellular dermal matrix and evaluate its efficiency of decellularization, biomechanical properties and biocompatibility, in order to explore its feasibility as an oral restoration membrane.
METHODS: The skin of Astroconger Myriaster was harvested to prepare acellular dermal matrix by decellularization via a combination of physical method and chemical and biological reagents. The micromorphology of the material was observed under scanning electron microscope. Tissue composition was analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin, Masson and PAS staining. The DNA content was detected using a kit. The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and animal skin stimulation tests.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The prepared acellular dermal matrix: (1) was white or light yellow, with strength and toughness; (2) exhibited a double-layered structure composed of a dense layer and a loose layer; (3) was mostly composed of collagen without PAS positive substance, showing good decellularization; (4) had a significantly lower DNA content than natural fish skin and commercial oral restoration membrane; and (5) possessed good biocompatibility, with very low cytotoxicity and no stimulation to the animal skin. Therefore, the prepared acellular dermal matrix of fish skin shows a potential in the preparation of oral guided tissue regeneration membrane.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Microleakage from the crown to the root canal after post space preparation with different timing and remaining length
Wang Jieqi, Zheng Meihua, Wu Hong, Li Xiaoyu, Xie Wenqiang. Microleakage from the crown to the root canal after post space preparation with different timing and remaining length[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1552-1557.

BACKGROUND: Poor root canal filling or poor post-core crown restoration can cause microleakage between the implant material and the tooth, leading to secondary infection of the periapical tissue and affecting long-term effect of tooth restoration.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the microleakage in a glucose penetration model when post space preparation is performed with different timing and remaining lengths.
METHODS: Eighty-six freshly extracted mandibular premolars from the Orthodontics Department of Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University were randomly divided into eight groups: positive control group (n=10) undertook root canal preparation; negative control group (n=10) undertook root canal preparation and filling but not post space preparation; A1, B1 and C1 groups (n=11 per group) were subjected to root canal filling immediately followed by post space preparation with the filling material of 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm in length, respectively; A2, B2 and C2 groups were subjected to root canal filling and 1 week after filling, the three groups underwent post space preparation with the filling material of 4, 5 and 6 mm in length, respectively. At 48 hours after post space preparation, the integration of root canal wall and filling material was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The glucose microleakage model was used to detect the amount of glucose leaking from the crown to the root in each group.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Under the scanning electron microscope, the fillings were most tightly bonded to the root canal wall in C1, while microcracks were most apparent in A2. (2) According to the measurement of glucose penetration model, A2 showed more microleakage than A1 (P < 0.05), B2 showed more microleakage than B1 (P < 0.05), and there was no statistically significant difference between C1 and C2 (P > 0.05). No significant difference was found among A1, B1 and C1 (P > 0.05), B2 showed no statistical difference in the microleakage from A2 and C2 (P > 0.05), but A2 showed more microleakage than C2 (P′ < 0.017). These results indicate that immediate post space preparation is superior to delayed preparation in reducing the microleakage. For immediate post space preparation, the remaining length of the filling material has no effect on the microleakage, but for delayed preparation, the filling material of at least 5 mm in length should be preserved.

 

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      药物控释材料 drug delivery materials
Polyacrylamide hydrogel, an ultrasonic coupling agent: optimization process and acoustic performance characterization
Huang Jianwen, Huang Botian, Zhao Wenbin, Min Mengzhen, Li Kun, Li Shuyi, Wang Hailiang, Zhang Chao. Polyacrylamide hydrogel, an ultrasonic coupling agent: optimization process and acoustic performance characterization[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1533-1539.

BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic coupling agent is indispensable in ultrasonic imaging. The service life and change frequency of the ultrasonic probe is determined by the internal coupling agent of the chosen hydrogel material. Due to defects in the existing gel-formula, after a period of time in use it can cause the surface depression of probes and thus influence the ultrasonic imaging quality.

OBJECTIVE: To optimize the gel formula of the coupling agent.
METHODS: The amplified synthesis process of polyacrylamide hydrogel was optimized by changing the ratio of monomer concentration to N,N-methylenebisacrylamide crosslinker in the synthesis conditions, and the factors influencing its acoustic properties were explored to meet the technical requirements in the clinical use process.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: When the monomer concentration was set to 70 g/L and the mass ratio of monomer to crosslinker was 7:1, the polyacrylamide hydrogel was in the best state. The obtained polyacrylamide hydrogel had a stable swelling rate, had a strong ability to keep water and make the volume reduce under the influence of the operating temperature of ultrasound, and its relative amplitude changed less with the change of ultrasonic frequency. The sound attenuation coefficient of polyacrylamide hydrogel would be higher when the frequency of ultrasonic sound source was higher. The changes of monomer concentration would have significant impacts on the acoustic properties of polyacrylamide hydrogel. Therefore, by controlling the monomer concentration ratio, we can prepare the coupling agent that exhibits relatively stable acoustic properties at an optimum concentration and achieves an optimal imaging effect.

 

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Process optimization of compound cotton rose hibiscus leaf ointment and its clinical efficacy and safety verification
Yan Wei, Luo Shihua, Jia Youji, Xi Xiaobing, Li Zhongwei. Process optimization of compound cotton rose hibiscus leaf ointment and its clinical efficacy and safety verification[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1540-1545.

BACKGROUND: Compound cotton rose hibiscus leaf ointment is developed from the continuous optimization of the preparation process of traditional famous prescription “Xiaozhong San”. Xiaozhong San has been used in Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to School of Medicine of Shanghai Jiaotong University for over 40 years and has achieved good clinical outcomes.

OBJECTIVE: To verify the clinical efficacy and safety of compound cotton rose hibiscus leaf ointment, laying a foundation for its popularization and application in the treatment of acute soft tissue injury.
METHODS: 112 cases of acute soft tissue injury were divided into trial group (n=55) and control group (n=57) according to the random number table method. The experimental group selected the compound cotton rose hibiscus leaf ointment, and the control group selected the compound Zijing ointment.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) There were no statistical differences in the primary outcomes, such as pain, tenderness, swelling, dysfunction and in the secondary outcomes, such as ecchymosis, insomnia, dry mouth, constipation, tongue coating and pulse condition, between the two groups before treatment, at 3 and 7 days of treatment and after treatment termination (P > 0.05). (2) The two groups achieved obvious clinical outcomes in the treatment of acute soft tissue injury, but there was no difference in the clinical efficacy between the two groups (P > 0.05). (3) The two groups had no obvious abnormalities in the routine of hematuria and stool and the function of the liver and kidney. (4) There were only five cases of mild skin allergy, including two cases in the trial group and three cases in the control group. To conclude, the compound cotton rose hibiscus leaf ointment has good clinical efficacy and safety, which is worthy of clinical application.
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      细胞外基质材料 extracellular matrix materials
Effects of domestic porous tantalum on expression of collagen type I, tissue transglutaminase 2 and calcium-binding protein A4 in MG63 cells
Chen Jingjing, Wang Qian, Cui Yishuang, Teng Xuefeng, Zhang Hui, Li Qijia. Effects of domestic porous tantalum on expression of collagen type I, tissue transglutaminase 2 and calcium-binding protein A4 in MG63 cells[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1546-1551.

BACKGROUND: At present, there is evidence that domestic porous tantalum has good biocompatibility and osteogenic properties, but the specific osteogenic mechanism and its effect on osteogenic factors are still unclear.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of domestic porous tantalum materials on the expression of collagen type I, tissue transglutaminase-2 and calcium-binding protein A4 in MG63 cells.
METHODS: MG63 cells in logarithmic growth phase were inoculated onto 24-well plates and cultured in three groups: in blank group, conventional medium was added; in tantalum extract group, porous tantalum material extract was added; and in tantalum scaffold group, porous tantalum material and conventional medium were added. On 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of culture, the cell proliferation of each group was detected by cell counting kit-8 method. On 5 days of culture, the levels of collagen type I, tissue transglutaminase-2 and calcium-binding protein A4 secreted by MG63 cells in each group were detected by ELISA. Western blot assay was used to detect the expression of three proteins in each group.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) With the prolongation of culture time, the number of cells in each group increased gradually. There was no difference in cell proliferation among the three groups at different time points (P > 0.05). (2) The secretory levels of collagen type I and tissue transglutaminase-2 in the tantalum scaffold group were significantly higher than those in the blank group and tantalum extract group  (P < 0.05), while the secretion of collagen type I and tissue transglutaminase-2 in the tantalum extract group was significantly higher than that in the blank group (P < 0.05). The secretion of calcium-binding protein A4 in the tantalum scaffold group was significantly lower than that in the other two groups (P < 0.05). (3) The expression of collagen type I and tissue transglutaminase-2 protein in the tantalum scaffold group was significantly higher than that in the blank group and tantalum extract group (P < 0.05), while the expression of collagen type I and tissue transglutaminase-2 protein in the tantalum extract group was significantly higher than that in the blank group (P < 0.05). The expression of calcium-binding protein A4 in the tantalum scaffold group was significantly lower than that in the blank group and tantalum extract group (P < 0.05). To conclude, domestic porous tantalum materials could promote the secretion of collagen type I and tissue transglutaminase-2 by MG63 cells, and inhibit the secretion of calcium-binding protein A4.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Construction of type I collagen nerve conduit and its mechanism of action in reconstruction of median nerve injury of the forearm
Shen Zhimin, Duan Yiqiang, Ye Chuan, Zhuang Yong. Construction of type I collagen nerve conduit and its mechanism of action in reconstruction of median nerve injury of the forearm[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1564-1569.

BACKGROUND: Type I collagen is a polymer material that has good biocompatibility and good cell affinity, and can degrade under certain conditions. It can also develop good mechanical properties after cross-linking, but it is less reported in the reconstruction of the injured median nerve of the forearm.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the preparation method of type I collagen nerve conduit and its mechanism in the reconstruction following median nerve injury in the forearm.
METHODS: A total of 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were selected from the Medical Animal Experimental Center, the Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, 10 of which were randomly selected as sham surgery group. The remaining 30 rats were used to establish a rat model of median nerve injury in the forearm by laser-induced photochemical reaction. After successful modeling, the model rats were randomly divided into positive control group (n=10), type I collagen group (n=10) and autologous nerve group (n=10). The sham surgery group was routinely fed and did not participate in the modeling; the positive control group did not take special treatment after the successful modeling; the type I collagen group was subjected to bridging with type I collagen nerve conduit; and the autologous nerve group was subjected to bridging with autologous nerve. The repair effects were compared among groups.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Under the inverted microscope, the type I collagen was loosely arranged before cross-linking, and it had honeycomb-shaped irregular pores with the pore size of 10-100 μm and the porosity of 20-200 μm, and the pore interstitial was relatively thin. After cross-linking, the type I collagen was densely arranged, the collagen fibers could form relatively regular pores with the pore size of 50-100 μm and the porosity of 20-200 μm, the interstitial mass was thickened, and the spatial structure changed significantly. (2) After 4, 8 and 12 weeks of repair, the scores on the Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test in the type I collagen and autologous nerve groups were significantly lower than those in the positive control group (P < 0.05) and higher than those in the sham surgery group (P < 0.05). (3) At 12 weeks after repair, there was no significant difference in amplitude and latency between the type I collagen group and the autologous nerve group (P > 0.05), but the amplitude and latency in both groups were significantly higher than those in the positive control group (P < 0.05). (4) At 12 weeks after repair, the nerve injury site surrounded by necrotic tissues was visible in the positive control group; no injury was found in the autologous nerve group, and the surrounding necrotic area decreased, indicating good recovery; no injury was shown by toluidine blue staining in the type II collagen group, indicating good recovery. Overall, the type I collagen nerve conduit can be successfully prepared by the self-made mold, and it can be used for the reconstruction following median nerve injury in the rat forearm, helping nerve repair.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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      材料生物相容性 material biocompatibility
Biosafety evaluation of chitosan lactate/hyaluronate sponge
Cai Yuhui, Hu Kesu, Zhang Yi. Biosafety evaluation of chitosan lactate/hyaluronate sponge[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1558-1563.

BACKGROUND: Functional dressings have been widely used in clinical practice, but so far none of existing dressings can meet the clinical needs in terms of gas permeability, biocompatibility, comfort, and degradability.

OBJECTIVE: To systemically evaluate the biosafety properties of water-soluble chitosan lactate/hyaluronan sponge after modification.
METHODS: In the study, there were 10 male BALB/C mice of SPF grade (6-8 weeks old), 20 Sprague-Dawley rats of SPF grade (7 weeks old, both genders), and 3 male New Zealand white rabbits (8 weeks old), all provided by Dongguan Songshanhu Pearl Animal Technology Co., Ltd. The chitosan lactate/hyaluronan sponge was prepared for cytotoxicity test. A blank control group was set. According to the GB/T16886 biological evaluation system, the rabbits were subjected to composite sponge stimulation and sensitization and intradermal reaction tests from the perspective of biosafety, and then divided into non-polar extract group, polar extract group and negative control group. The inoculation site was observed within 72 hours. The mice were subjected to acute toxicity test, and divided into experimental group (extraction solution) and control group (pure saline), and their manifestations were observed for 72 hours. The rats were subjected to subchronic toxicity test, and then divided into experimental group (subcutaneous implantation of composite sponge) and control group (making a skin incision on the back followed by suturing). The changes in body weight of the rats were observed, blood samples from the rats were taken intravenously for blood routine analysis at 13 weeks after testing, and the rats were anesthetized and executed in the next day for gross observations of the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, brain, pancreas, thymus, stomach, and bladder.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The chemical structure of the modified composite sponge formed as expected. The cytotoxicity of the composite sponge was grade 1, which was not significantly different from the negative control group. (2) The skin irritation test showed no skin erythema and edema in the New Zealand white rabbits after being stimulated by the composite sponge, and the existing stimulation reactions were extremely mild. Almost no obvious sensitization reaction occurred. (3) No erythema and edema were captured in the intradermal reaction test, and intradermal reaction stimulation of the composite sponge was very weak. (4) In the acute toxicity test, no obvious toxicity symptoms such as hypocinesis, dyspnea and abdominal stimulation were observed in the mice. Furthermore, at the observational time point of 72 hours, no acute systemic toxicity occurred in the two groups. (5) In the subchronic toxicity test, no obvious difference was detected in the rat body mass between the experimental and control groups. The same conclusion was made in the hematology and organ coefficient tests. To conclude, the chitosan lactate/hyaluronate sponge has excellent biological properties and good biosafety, which can be applied for further clinical use.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Biosafety of medical injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel
Gao Ping, Cheng Lin, Chen Bin, Li Ruizhi, Li Xin, Shi Mengrou, Li Guangyuan, Cheng Peng, Li Dongfeng, Yu Huan, Wang Xiaohui. Biosafety of medical injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1570-1574.

BACKGROUND: The injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel prepared in the previous study combines the advantages of anti-adhesion membrane and anti-adhesion liquid. It can form soft gel in situ in a relatively short time, which is not affected by body position, bear the pressure of surrounding tissues and can be used without compression.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biocompatibility of medical injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel.           
METHODS: Logarithmic growing L929 cells were used as test cells, and the cytotoxicity of injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel extract was detected by MTT method. The intradermal stimulation test of injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel extract was carried out in Japanese big ear rabbits. Guinea pigs were used as experimental animals to carry out intradermal induction and local induced delayed hypersensitivity test of injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel extract. Wistar rats were used as experimental animals to carry out the subchronic toxicity test of injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel extract.          

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The cytotoxicity of injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel extract was grade 1, meeting the standard requirements. Injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel extract had no potential intradermal stimulation and no potential skin sensitization. In the subchronic toxicity test, the rats were subjected to the tail vein injection of injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel extract for 28 continuous days, and there was no obvious subchronic systemic toxicity in body mass, hematology, coagulation function, blood biochemistry and visceral pathology. These results indicate that the injectable carboxymethyl glycosaminoglycan anti-adhesion gel has good biosafety.

 

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Biocompatibility of anodic titanium oxide: an experimental research
Liu Shaoyang, Zou Hanlin . Biocompatibility of anodic titanium oxide: an experimental research[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1575-1580.

BACKGROUND: Studies have confirmed that titanium dioxide coating can improve the adhesion of implant surface, promote osteoblast proliferation and other cell functions, and improve the bone integration ability between the surrounding bone and implant. But little has been done in the use of titanium dioxide coating as a coating for internal and external fixation to prevent screw loosening.

OBJECTIVE: To prepare titanium dioxide coated titanium screws and to observe the effect of titanium dioxide coated titanium screws used for bone fixation to reduce screw loosening.
METHODS: Titanium dioxide coating was prepared on the surface of titanium screw by anodic oxidation. Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits (provided by the Central Laboratory of Shanghai Putuo District Central Hospital in China) were randomly divided into two groups (n=15 per group). Titanium dioxide coated screws were implanted in the right tibia of the rabbits in the experimental group, and ordinary titanium screws were implanted in the right tibia of the rabbits in the control group. Bone tissue around the screw canal was taken at 1 day, 1 and 4 weeks after implantation, and levels of platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor genes were detected using RT-PCR. Four weeks after implantation, bone tissue around the nail canal was taken for hematoxylin-eosin staining.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The results of hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in the screw canal of the control group, and some screw canal threads were destroyed and absorbed. In the experimental group, the screw threads were clear and had no damage or absorption; inflammatory cells in the screw canal were less exuded. (2) RT-PCR analysis revealed no significant difference in the expression of platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor gene between the two groups at 1 day after implantation (P > 0.05), while the expression of platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor gene in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group at 1 and 4 weeks after implantation (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Therefore, titanium dioxide coated titanium screws are more biocompatible than common titanium screws and can effectively prevent screw loosening when used for internal fixation.

 

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Effects of flow rate and blade outlet width on hemolytic performance of centrifugal blood pump
Hu Wanqian, Li Xuemin, Xu Lin, Liu Jiwei, Sun Hao. Effects of flow rate and blade outlet width on hemolytic performance of centrifugal blood pump[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1581-1587.

BACKGROUND: Hemolysis is an important problem in the design and development of artificial heart pumps. Hemolysis is associated with the shear force of blood cells in the pump and the movement time in the pump.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the operating parameters of blood pump (flow rate of blood pump), the structure of blood pump (outlet width of blade) and the shear stress of blood cells in artificial heart pump.
METHODS: The basic structure of the centrifugal blood pump was designed according to the velocity coefficient method. The three-dimensional model of the blood pump, mesh division and flow field simulation were established by using CFturbo, ANSYS ICEM and FLUENT software respectively to study the best mesh division method. The results of the numerical simulation corrected the diameter of the impeller outlet to finally obtain an artificial heart pump meeting the needs of the human heart. In order to reduce the shear stress and movement time of blood cells in the heart pump, the optimal design and analysis of the impeller inlet flow rate Q (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 L/min) and the operating parameter blade outlet width b2 (2.0, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 mm) of the centrifugal artificial heart pump were designed to reduce the probability of hemolysis.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) As the flow rate increased, the shear stress of the blood cells in the blood pump gradually increased, and the movement time gradually decreased. As the flow rate increased, the standard hemolysis value in the blood pump gradually decreased, and the damage to the blood cells in the blood pump alleviated. When the flow rate was 7 L/min, the standard hemolysis value in the blood pump was the lowest. (2) With the increase of blade outlet width, the shear stress of the blood in the pump decreased, and the movement time of the blood in the pump increased. When the blade outlet width was 2.0-2.5 mm, the hemolysis value in the blood pump decreased with the increase of the blade outlet width. When the blade outlet width was about 2.5 mm, the hemolysis value in the blood pump was the lowest.
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Design and manufacture of medical carbon fiber thermostatic heating pads
Yan Peng, Mu Xinling, Zheng Weidong, Cui Jingfu, Liu Jinhui, Ma Yufei, Gao Xu, Hao Shaofei, Du Juan. Design and manufacture of medical carbon fiber thermostatic heating pads[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1588-1593.

BACKGROUND: It has been pointed out that perioperative hypothermia can increase the incidence of coagulation, acidosis, stroke, sepsis, pneumonia and myocardial infarction, so it is of great significance to monitor and maintain normal body temperature during perioperative period.

OBJECTIVE: To design a medical carbon fiber thermostatic heating pad to prevent perioperative hypothermia and reduce complications.

METHODS: The carbon fiber heating technology and medical equipment standard are combined and integrated into many advanced technologies. The system mainly consisted of power supply conversion, operation system, computer control system, PWM control and output, various heating pads and temperature controlling measurement system. A total of 200 patients undergoing epidural anesthesia in Zhengzhou First People’s Hospital were randomly divided into two groups: the observation group (n=100) was treated with the medical carbon fiber thermostatic heating pad (adjusting temperature 38-40 oC), and the control group (n=100) with common quilt. The body temperature and shivering were monitored before operation, 10, 30 and 60 minutes after anesthesia, and 2 hours after operation.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The heating pad had the characteristics of explosion proof, power purification, shielding isolation, output protection, computer control, and PWM modulation. (2) In clinical application, there was no skin irritation and skin allergy reaction in the observation group. (3) During operation, the body temperature of the observation group was relatively stable, and there was no significant difference in the body temperature in the observation group before and at 2 hours after operation (P > 0.05). However, the fluctuation of body temperature in control group was visible and showed a downward trend, and the body temperature in the control group showed a significant difference before and 2 hours after operation (P < 0.05). The body temperature of 10, 30, 60 minutes after anesthesia and 2 hours after operation was significantly higher in the observation group than the control group (P < 0.05). (4) The postoperative incidence of shivering in the control group was significantly higher than that in the observation group (18% vs. 5%, P < 0.05). To conclude, the medical carbon fiber thermostatic heating pad is advanced in technology, safe and reliable in use, providing a new way for the prevention of perioperative shivering.  

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of glutamine in human assisted reproductive medium
Ke Linnan, Huang Yuanli, Fang Yu, Wang Chunren. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of glutamine in human assisted reproductive medium[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1594-1598.

BACKGROUND: Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for analyzing amino acids in biological samples is simple in sample preparation with a short analysis time, and has high sensitivity and specificity. Until now, it is only applied in analyzing glutamine contents in dialysate, urine and plasma.

OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for determining glutamine concentration in human assisted reproductive media by UPLC-MS/MS.
METHODS: The UPLC separation was performed on a SUPELCO Discovery HS F5-3 column (15 cm×2.1 mm, 3 μm) at 40 oC. The mobile phase was acetonitrile and water (both containing 0.1% formic acid) in a gradient elute mode. The flow rate was 0.35 mL/min. Electrospray ionization with a negative-ion and multiple reaction monitoring mode was used. 

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The linearity was achieved in the range of 0.123 7-24.74 mg/L for glutamine (r=0.999 7). The recoveries were 102.9%-108.2% with the range 2.3%-4.9% for the relative standard deviation. The limit of qualification was 9.76 µg/L. The fertilization culture medium containing glutamine was incubated at 37 oC for 96 hours, in which the glutamine content declined 6% at 24 hours and 15% at 96 hours respectively compared with initial content. Therefore, the method is simple, specific, accurate and sensitive without sample derivation, and the test time is short. It is suitable for the quality control of human assisted reproductive media and useful for the risk study related to the degradation of glutamine.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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      材料力学及表面改性 material mechanics and surface modification
Fluid structure interaction analysis of transcatheter aortic valve implantation
Zhu Hongwei, Yuan Quan, Liu Xingming, Cong Hua. Fluid structure interaction analysis of transcatheter aortic valve implantation[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1599-1604.

BACKGROUND: Cardiac valve replacement provides an effective therapeutic means for valvular heart disease. Compared with thoracotomy surgery, interventional treatment, typified by transcatheter aortic valve implantation, has the advantages of minor trauma and rapid recovery. At present, the transcatheter aortic valve replacement is rarely applied in clinical practice. Existing studies mainly focus on the changes of physiological conditions after surgery, while little is reported on the transcatheter aortic valve models.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the deformation and stress distribution features of the transcatheter aortic valve, and to verify its working performance.
METHODS: The finite element geometric model and mathematical model of the aortic valve, including the aortic valve, blood vessel wall, blood and stent, were established. The fluid structure interaction analysis was carried out by the immersion boundary method, and the effective orifice area index was calculated to verify the performance of the model.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: During the course of blood shock, the valve leaflets were curl, and the maximum deformation occurred at 1/4 and 3/4 of the valve leaflet free edge. The largest equivalent stress of the aortic valve model was on the stent, but it is almost unformed. The stress concentration of the valve leaflets was located at the curved site of the free edge and the suture points of the leaflets and stents, where a damage easily occurred. The dynamic flow experiments show that the process of the simulation model deformation and effective orifice area index are close to the experimental results. Therefore, the simulation model is reasonable and effective.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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      生物材料综述 biomaterial review
Clinical application and research progress of allograft tendon in reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament
Li Tao, Zhu Yanlin, Lin Tangdi, Li Jian, Fu Weili. Clinical application and research progress of allograft tendon in reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1605-1610.

BACKGROUND: The use of allograft tendon promotes the development of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, which is of great importance in the relevant basic research and clinical practice.

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current application and progress of allograft tendon in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
METHODS: We searched relevant articles about the use of allograft tendon in PubMed and Embase published from January 2012 to February 2018 using the keywords of “allograft tends OR allografts, intra-articular knee ligament OR anterior cruciate ligament OR ACL”.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: China’s use of allogeneic tendon in the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is still in the developmental stage. The current pros and cons of using allografts or autografts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction are inconclusive. Concerns about the choice of allografts are mainly due to possible infections and slow healing. A huge difference exists in different trials concerning the effects of allografts versus autografts. The conclusions are therefore roughly as follows: there is no difference in knee function after implantation of the two grafts, or the knee joint function is better after autograft. Studies have shown that allografts may increase the risk of secondary surgery. Therefore, the use of allograft tendon faces many clinical challenges in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Application of chitosan hydrogels in cartilage repair
Yang Lingjian, Li Yanlin, Jia Di, He Yinghong, Xiang Yaoyu. Application of chitosan hydrogels in cartilage repair[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1611-1616.

BACKGROUND: Chitosan has become a research hotspot of cartilage repair materials because of a wide range of biological sources, simple preparation processes and excellent biocompatibility.

OBJECTIVE: To review the characteristics of chitosan hydrogels and their application in cartilage repair.

METHODS: PubMed and CNKI databases were searched by computer with the keywords of “chitosan; chitosan hydrogel; cartilage repair; tissue engineering” in English and Chinese, respectively. The time range was from January 2000 to March 2018. After initial screening, the retained articles were further analyzed, concluded and summarized.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chitosan has good biocompatibility, low toxicity, low immunogenicity, and can load multiple growth factors and seed cells with different physical or chemical improvements. Encouraging progress in tissue engineering cartilage repair has been achieved. With the development of technology and the understanding of cartilage and subchondral bone structure, the application range of chitosan biomimetic hydrogel has been broadened. However, the molecular mechanism and degradation process of chitosan in vivo still have a lot of controversies, and further research and exploration are needed.

 

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Application of bisphosphonates incorporated into scaffolds in bone defects
Cui Yutao, Li Ronghang, Liu He, Wang Zhonghan, Li Shengyang, Ji Xuan, Yang Fan, Guan Wenqi, Li Zuhao, Wu Dankai . Application of bisphosphonates incorporated into scaffolds in bone defects[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1617-1625.

BACKGROUND: In the process of bone defect healing, the use of biological materials loaded with drugs for local defect intervention can accelerate the repair of the defect, which provides a new method for the local treatment of bone defects.

OBJECTIVE: To introduce the local application of bone tissue engineering scaffolds loaded with bisphosphonates in bone defect repair and to summarize the effects of bone tissue engineering scaffolds as a drug delivery system on the bone defect healing.
METHODS: The authors retrieved PubMed, Web of Science, Springerlink, Medline, WanFang and CNKI databases with “bisphosphonates, alendronate, zoledronate, bone defect, bone tissue engineering” as key words for relevant articles published from 2006 to 2018. Initially, 235 articles were retrieved, and finally 70 articles were selected for further analysis.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Bisphosphonate drug is an effective inhibitor of osteoclast dissolution. It can form a drug sustained release system on the local defect by being loaded to composite scaffolds, promote the formation of new bone and accelerate the healing of the defect. For the drug delivery system of bisphosphonates, suitable scaffold materials are crucial to the osteogenic effect of composite scaffolds in the defect area. At present, the carrier materials used for bisphosphonate-loaded composite scaffolds are mainly divided into organic materials and inorganic materials. Most polymeric organic materials can directly load bisphosphonates to form good drug sustained release in the local area and obviously exert their pro-osteogenic effects, while natural materials and most inorganic materials are often combined with other materials to form composite materials as carriers to optimize the carrier performance. Most studies have also confirmed that these composite materials loaded with bisphosphonates in the defect area exert osteogenic effect in the defect area.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Applications of functional Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical field
Ma Jie, Wang Qian. Applications of functional Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical field[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1626-1632.

BACKGROUND: Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles gradually become a hot research point in related research fields due to their unique superparamagnetic property, biocompatibility, specific targeting and low cytotoxicity. OBJECTIVE: To review the development of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles in recent years as well as their applications in the biomedical field.

METHODS: The first author retrieved the PubMed and CNKI databases for relevant articles published from January 2001 to October 2018 using the keywords of “magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles”, “surface modification”, “biomedicine” in English and Chinese, respectively.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles are prone to oxidation and aggregation, and the lack of coupling groups on the surface limits the functionalization of the nanoparticles. Therefore, surface modification and processing of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles by physical and chemical methods are warranted to achieve their further applications. Polymer molecules, organic small molecules and inorganic materials can be used for surface modification of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. At present, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been applied in some new biomedical fields, such as magnetic resonance imaging, targeted drugs and gene carriers, immunoassays, biological separation and solidification enzymes.

 

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      生物材料循证医学 evidence-based medicine of biomaterials
Efficacy and safety of bone cement injection via unipedicular and bipedicular approaches in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a Meta-analysis
Wang Yantao, Chen Yi, Pan Meijun, Huang Jiahua, Chen Jinzhao, Liu Dejian, Xian Shuyi, Zhou Chi, Wang Haibin. Efficacy and safety of bone cement injection via unipedicular and bipedicular approaches in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a Meta-analysis[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(10): 1633-1640.

BACKGROUND: In the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with percutaneous vertebroplasty, the efficacy and safety of bone cement injection by unipedicular and bipedicular approaches are still controversial. Some studies suggest that bone cement injection via unipedicular approach can shorten operation time and reduce postoperative complications, while the other studies suggest that bone cement injection via bipedicular approach can make bone cement distribute more evenly in the vertebral body and relieve pain better.

OBJECTIVE: To systematically assess the efficacy and safety of percutaneous vertebroplasty via unipedicular versus bipedicular approach in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. 
METHODS: Randomized controlled trials about unipedicular versus bipedicular percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture published before September 18th, 2018 were retrieved in the PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, CNKI, VIP, WanFang data and CBM. Two researchers independently screened all the literatures, carried out data extraction and used improved Jadad to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis using Revam 5.3 was conducted. Egger’s test was utilized to evaluate the publication bias.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Totally 14 randomized controlled trials including 900 cases were eventually included, 452 cases in unipedicular approach group and 448 cases in bipedicular approach group. The Meta-analysis results showed that compared with the bipedicular approach, the unipedicular approach required shorter operation time [weighted mean difference (WMD)=-16.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) (-19.25, -13.94), P < 0.001], smaller amount of bone cement injected [WMD=-1.27, 95% CI (-1.64, -0.89), P < 0.001], and had lower incidence of cement leakage [relative risk=0.70, 95% CI (0.53, 0.92), P =0.01]. There were no significant differences in short- and long-term Visual Analogue Scale scores, short- and long-term Oswestry Disability Index scores, and the postoperative incidence of adjacent vertebral fractures between the two groups (P > 0.05). Overall, bone cement injection both via bipedicular and unipedicular approaches can lead to a significant improvement in pain relief and living quality of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture patients, but bone cement injection via unipedicular approach can shorten operation time, reduce cement volume and lower the incidence of cement leakage compared with the bipedicular approach.

 

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