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中国组织工程研究  
 
 
 
2019年, 第23卷 第6期
出版日期:2019-02-28

组织工程骨及软骨材料 tissue-engineered bone and cartilage materials
组织工程口腔材料 tissue-engineered oral materials
纳米生物材料 nanobiomaterials
膜生物材料 membrane biomaterials
药物控释材料 drug delivery materials
细胞外基质材料 extracellular matrix materials
材料生物相容性 material biocompatibility
材料力学及表面改性 material mechanics and surface modification
生物材料综述 biomaterial review
      组织工程骨及软骨材料 tissue-engineered bone and cartilage materials
Construction of polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate with different mixture ratios using three-dimensional printing technology and its osteoinductivity in vitro
Yuan Bo, Wang Zhiwei, Tang Yifan, Zhou Shengyuan, Chen Xiongsheng, Jia Lianshun. Construction of polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate with different mixture ratios using three-dimensional printing technology and its osteoinductivity in vitro[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 821-826.

BACKGROUND: The choice and mixture ratio of composite materials for bone tissue engineering scaffolds have a great influence on the osteoinductivity of scaffolds.

OBJECTIVE: To construct the polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffolds with different mixture ratios using 3D printing technology, and to test their physiochemical characteristics and osteoinductivity.
METHODS: Polycaprolactone and tricalcium phosphate were mixed in different ratios of 10:0, 9:1, 8:2, and 7:3, and the polycaprolactone and polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds were constructed by the 3D printing technology. The scaffolds were named as PCL scaffold, PCL-10% TCP scaffold, PCL-20% TCP scaffold, PCL-30% TCP scaffold. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and fatigue testing machine. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells seeded on different scaffolds were detected at 1, 4, 7 days of culture and at 1, 7 and 14 days of culture, respectively, by in vitro experiments. The content of calcium in the supernatant of the scaffolds was detected at 7, 14, and 21 days of culture
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The PCL-30%TCP scaffold could not be constructed by this method. Compared with the PCL scaffold, the compressive strength and elastic modulus of the PCL-10% TCP and PCL-20% TCP composite scaffolds were stronger (P < 0.05), and the porosity did not change significantly. Pre-designed pore structure could be observed in the PCL, PCL-10%TCP and PCL-20%TCP scaffolds, and the internal pores of the scaffolds were interconnected. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells could proliferate on all the three scaffolds. The proliferation rate of the cells on the PCL-20% TCP scaffold was better than that of the other two scaffolds at 4 and 7 days of culture (P < 0.05). The alkaline phosphatase activity (7 and 14 days of culture) and calcium content (14 days of culture) of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the PCL-20% TCP scaffold were significantly higher than those of the PCL and PCL-10%TCP scaffolds (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the PCL-20% TCP scaffold has better mechanical properties, and can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. 
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Effect of high-viscosity cement dispersion on the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture in elderly women
Chen Cheng, Zhang Jiyun, Hao Jie, Wu Gang, Zhang Feng, Chen Xiaoqing. Effect of high-viscosity cement dispersion on the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture in elderly women[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 827-832.

BACKGROUND: High-viscosity bone cement is modified on the basis of traditional polymethylmethacrylate with the long injection time, high-viscosity and low polymerized temperature feature and further improves the safety of percutaneous vertebroplasty.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of high-viscosity bone cement dispersion on the clinical outcomes in elderly female patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture who have undergone percutaneous vertebroplasty.
METHODS: Totally 120 elderly female patients with primary single-segmental osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture aged from 53 to 83 years were included, and percutaneous vertebroplasty with high-viscosity bone cement was performed in all the enrolled patients. The patients were assigned into two groups according to the bone cement dispersion shown on the lateral X-ray film. The bone cement dispersed to both endplates in the fractured vertebral bodyof 54 patients, who were marked as group A, and the other 66 patients were classified as group B. The group A patients were further divided into two subgroups in term of CT cross-sectional image, and the patients with the bone cement dispersing to the bilateral pedicles were taken as degree I (25 patients) and the others were termed as degree II (29 patients). All patients were followed up for more than 6 months, and the recovery rate of anterior height of the vertebra, local kyphosis angle improvement rate, visual analog scale scores and Oswestry dysfunction index score at the last follow-up were compared among groups.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The recovery rate of anterior height of the vertebra and local kyphosis angle improvement rate in group A were better than those in group B at the last follow-up (P < 0.05). (2) The visual analog scale scores and Oswestry dysfunction index scores in both A and B groups were significantly improved at the last follow-up compared to the baseline data (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). (3) The subgroups of degree I and II showed no significant difference in the recovery rate of anterior height of the vertebra and local kyphosis angle improvement rate at the last follow-up (P > 0.05). (4) There were nine patients with bone cement leakage, four patients with postoperative fever, two patients with low blood pressure in group A and eight patients with bone cement leakage, six patients with postoperative fever, two patients with high blood pressure, one patient with superficial skin infection in group B, but there was no significant difference in the postoperative complications between the two groups (P > 0.05). All the results suggest that percutaneous vertebroplasty with high-viscosity bone cement has positive efficacy in treating elderly women with single-segmental osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. The better dispersion of bone cement in the fractured vertebrae indicates the better clinical effects. However, high-viscosity bone cement should be injected in an appropriate amount, as excessive dispersion will increase the risk of leakage.

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3D-printed hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid network composites for skull defects
Liu Dong, Qin Hu, Wang Yongxin, Li Yabin, Gao Yong, Fan Guofeng, Wang Zengliang. 3D-printed hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid network composites for skull defects[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 833-837.

BACKGROUND: Hydroxyapatite (HA)/polylactic acid (PLA) composite has good biocompatibility and osteoinductivity, but few studies have evaluated the feasibility of this composite used as a skull repair material.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the feasibility of 3D-printed HA/PLA network composite in the repair of rabbit skull defects.
METHODS: Twelve New Zealand rabbits were selected and two full-thickness defects of about 1 cm in diameter were prepared on the skull of each rabbit. One of them was implanted with 3D printed HA/PLA network composite and the other was implanted with autologous bone powder. The skull samples were taken at 6 and 12 weeks after implantation for morphological, hardness, and histopathological observations.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) At 12 weeks after implantation, the defect profile was observed in the control group, and the defect was basically repaired; the defect in the experimental group was completely filled with new bone tissues and fibrous tissues, and was integrated with the surrounding normal bone tissues. The overall contour was natural and the defect boundary was blurred. Some of the implants were degraded, and the new bones in the inner side of the skull defect converged with the surrounding tissues. (2) At 6 weeks after implantation, the microhardness of the repaired area in the experimental group was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05), both of which were lower than the hardness of normal bone (P < 0.05). At 12 weeks after implantation, the microhardness of the repaired area in the experimental group showed no difference from that of the control group and the normal group. (3) At 6 weeks after implantation, the bone trabeculae formed well in the experimental group and were interconnected partly, most of which extended along the skull defect in an orderly manner. Moreover, neovascularization and bone marrow cavity formed. In the control group, the thickness of trabecular bone was better but the alignment was irregular. At 12 weeks after implantation, dense bone trabeculae formed in the experimental group with good connectivity. There were bone cells and trabecular bones in the implants. In the control group, the thickness of bone trabeculae was good, but the alignment was irregular. Blood vessels and bone units could be seen, and the marrow cavity formed well. Overall, these findings suggest that the 3D-printed HA/PLA network composite has good biocompatibility, osteoinduction, and biodegradability, which can be used for skull repair effectively. 
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Cartilage extracellular matrix-derived particles for repairing large-area cartilage defects in goat weight-bearing area
Hou Angyang, Chen Peng, Tang He, Han Gonghai, Liu Ping, Chen Kaipeng, Peng Jiang, Zhang Yuming. Cartilage extracellular matrix-derived particles for repairing large-area cartilage defects in goat weight-bearing area[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 849-854.

BACKGROUND: With the development of tissue engineering technology, the use of natural biological materials as scaffolds can accelerate the formation of new cartilage tissue and facilitate the repair of cartilage defects.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the ability of cartilage extracellular matrix-derived particles to repair cartilage defects in the weight-bearing area.
METHODS: Extracellular matrix-derived particles were prepared by decellularization of goat knee cartilage. Twelve Chinese goats (provided by the Experimental Animal Center of PLA General Hospital in China) were selected to make a full-thickness osteochondral defect model with a diameter of 8 mm and a depth of 2 mm in the weight-bearing area of the inner and outer condyles of the right femur. These goat models were randomly divided into two groups. In the experimental group (n=6), the cartilage extracellular matrix-derived particles were implanted to the defect and fixed with fibrin glue. The control group (n=6) was only filled with fibrin glue. General, histological and biomechanical evaluations were conducted with distal right femur samples taken at 3 and 6 months after implantation.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Hematoxylin-eosin staining: The defect was basically not repaired at 3 months after implantation in the control group, with a small amount of fibrous tissue filling, sag in the defect area, matrix staining and poor integration of the bilateral interface; at 6 months after implantation, the defect area in the control group was still mainly filled with fibrous tissues and contained a small amount of fibrous cartilage, and there was still a clear boundary between the new tissue and surrounding normal tissue. At 3 months after implantation, the defect area of the experimental group was smaller than that of the control group, and the new tissue was a complex of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. At 6 months after implantation, the proportion of tissue hyaline cartilage in the defect area of the experimental group increased, and the surface was relatively smooth, similar to the surrounding normal cartilage tissue, and well integrated. Enlarged cartilage lacunae were visible and the cells are arranged in order. (2) Safranine O-Fast Green staining: At 3 months after implantation, the defect area of the control group was basically free of proteoglycan red stain, while the defect area of the experimental group showed obvious proteoglycan coloring. At 6 months after implantation, the amount of proteoglycan-stained new tissue in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the proportion of hyaline cartilage in the new tissue was higher in the experimental group, similar to that of surrounding normal cartilage. (3) Biomechanical analysis: Six months after implantation, the average Young’s modulus of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). All the findings reveal that the use of cartilage extracellular matrix-derived microparticles can promote the repair of cartilage defects.

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Curative effects of three filling materials in the treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures
Wang Xuefeng, Shang Xifu . Curative effects of three filling materials in the treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 863-869.

BACKGROUND: In the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with percutaneous kyphoplasty, the choice of filling material has become an important factor for the surgical outcome.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and CPC with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2/CPC) in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.
METHODS: One hundred and twenty patients with osteoporotic thoracolumbar compression fractures undergoing percutaneous kyphoplasty were included, and were randomly divided into three groups, PMMA, CPC and rhBMP-2/CPC groups (n=40 per group). After 7 days of treatment, the clinical efficacy of each group was evaluated. The use of analgesics was evaluated before and 3 months after treatment. Bone mineral density was assessed before treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment. At 1 year after treatment, the incidence of new fractures was counted.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The total effective rate of the three groups was 97.5%, and there was no significant difference in the clinical efficacy among groups (P > 0.05). The visual analogue scale scores in each group after 7-day treatment were all improved compared with the baseline (P < 0.05). The improvement in the CPC and rhBMP-2/CPC groups was significantly better than that in the PMMA group (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the improvement between CPC and rhBMP-2/CPC groups (P > 0.05).The recovery of motor function in the three groups at 7 days after treatment was significantly better than the baseline (P < 0.05). The improvement degree in the CPC and rhBMP-2/CPC groups was significantly better than that in the PMMA group (P < 0.05). The height of the injured anterior and middle vertebral column and the Cobb angle of kyphosis in each group at 7 days after treatment were significantly improved compared with the baseline (P < 0.05).There was no significant difference in the degree of improvement among groups (P > 0.05). At 3 months after treatment, the patients in all groups were separated from the analgesic drugs. At 6 months after treatment, the bone mineral density in the PMMA and CPC groups showed no significant difference compared with the baseline (P > 0.05). The bone mineral density in the rhBMP-2/CPC group was significantly increased compared with the baseline (P < 0.05). After 1 year of treatment, the incidence of new fractures in the CPC and rhBMP-2/CPC groups was significantly lower than that in the PMMA group (P < 0.05), and there was no difference between CPC and rhBMP-2/CPC groups (P >0.05). These results suggest that the clinical efficacy of PMMA, CPC and rhBMP-2/CPC in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures is satisfactory. CPC and rhBMP-2/CPC can accelerate pain relief and hold long-term support effect, reduce the incidence of new fractures, and meanwhile, rhBMP-2/CPC can increase the vertebral mineral density. 
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      组织工程口腔材料 tissue-engineered oral materials
Corrosion resistance of gold-platinum ceramic alloys after repeated casting
Chen Xi, Shi Qiaorui, Zheng Ming, Cheng Hui. Corrosion resistance of gold-platinum ceramic alloys after repeated casting[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 838-842.

BACKGROUND: Our previous findings indicate that the chemical composition and mechanical properties of gold-platinum (Au-Pt) ceramic alloy have no changes after repeated casting.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influences of repeated casting on the corrosion resistance of Au-Pt ceramic alloy.
METHODS: The Au-Pt ceramic alloy (primary alloy) was taken to carry out the first casting, and the generation I alloy (the scrap alloy such as the base and the casting channel) was obtained under the molten casting environment which was vacuum-added argon gas. The first-generation alloy was treated before recasting, in order to obtain the generation II alloy (base, cast iron and other scrap alloys), and then to obtain the generation III alloy (base, cast steel and other scrap alloys). The alloys at I-III generations were immersed in the electrolyte (pH=2.35) for 7 days. The type and concentration of metal ions in the leaching liquor were determined to calculate the corrosion rate of the immersed alloys using the weight loss method. The surface topography of the immersed alloys was observed, and in addition, the surface roughness and surface free energy of each specimen were tested.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) After the immersion of Au-Pt ceramic alloys at different generations, only three kinds of elements including indium, tin, iron were detected. The amount of indium deposited was the highest among the three kinds of elements, but there was no difference in the amount of metal ions deposited at each generation and the total amount of metal ions deposited at I-III generations among the various alloys (P > 0.05). (3) There was no difference in the corrosion rate between the generation III alloys (P > 0.05). (3) Under the scanning electron microscope, the surface of the alloys at I-III generations showed uniform scratches before immersion, and obvious corrosion marks were observed after immersion. (4) After immersion, the surface roughness of the alloys at I-III generations was increased, and the surface roughness of the generation II and III alloys showed no difference from that of the generation I alloys (P > 0.05). (5) After immersion, the surface free energy of the alloys at I-III generations was increased, but there was no difference between different generations of the alloys (P > 0.05). Overall, the corrosion resistance of Au-Pt ceramic alloy has no significant change after casting 1-3 times. 
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Different materials and different methods for repairing an isolated tooth defect model: a three-dimensional finite element analysis of stress distribution
Feng Guangzhi, Fu Hongyu, Ma Penghua. Different materials and different methods for repairing an isolated tooth defect model: a three-dimensional finite element analysis of stress distribution[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 870-876.

BACKGROUND: Current concerns are on how to maximize the reservation of tooth tissues after root canal treatment and to ensure the strength of the tooth after repair.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the stress distribution of an isolated tooth defect model after repair with different methods
METHODS: We collected 12 maxillary first molars which had been extracted for chronic periodontitis at the Department of Stomatology, Beijing Haidian Hospital in China. After root canal treatment, the isolated tooth defect model was prepared and repaired with different materials (cobalt-chromium alloy, pure titanium metal, zirconium dioxide, E.max all-ceramic) and using different repair methods (inlay, onlay, post-core crown). First, the model repaired by the corresponding materials and repair methods was scanned by Micro CT. The image processing software Mimics 17.0 and Geomegic Studio 2013 were then used to reconstruct the three-dimensional digital models of the tooth and restoration, and a simplified three-dimensional model of the alveolar bone was created. Finally, the above model data was imported into the finite element analysis software for mechanical simulation (the force was loaded at an angle of 90o at 8, 3, 3 points and at an angle of 0o at 0 point, respectively).

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Under different loading conditions, in the post-core crown group, the stress was concentrated in the edge of restoration, the shoulder of the preparation, the neck of the residual dentin, and the middle part of post-core crown in the post-core crown group. In the inlay group, the stress was concentrated in the load point of the enamel, and was transferred along the tooth enamel to the tooth neck; the stress concentration area also included the gingival wall and undersurface and transition site corresponding to the inlays and preparations. In the onlay group, the stress concentration occurred at the contact between the onlay and the enamel, at the gingival wall and undersurface of the preparation, and at the transition site. The stress was also concentrated and distributed evenly in the corresponding pulp cavity of the onlay. To conclude, the onlays have applicability and superiority in the repair of large-area defects of the maxillary molars.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Mechanical properties of three kinds of zirconia ceramics under chairside rapid sintering
Wang Qiuyue, Feng Yuchi . Mechanical properties of three kinds of zirconia ceramics under chairside rapid sintering[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 877-882.

BACKGROUND: As an emerging technology, chairside rapid sintering only makes sure that individual zirconia can achieve perfect performance, but there is no report on whether it is applicable for the other zirconia ceramics.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of chairside rapid sintering on the mechanical properties of three kinds of zirconia ceramics.
METHODS: Standard specimens of TT, ST and inCoris ZI zirconia undertook chairside rapid sintering. The density, hardness, fracture toughness and biaxial bending strength were measured.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The density value of TT, ST and inCoris ZI after sintering was (5.966±0.001), (6.060±0.001), and (6.031±0.001) g/cm3, respectively, and there were significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). The Vickers hardness of TT, ST and inCoris ZI after sintering was (12.02±0.04), (12.90±0.05) and (12.54±0.09) GPa, respectively, and significant differences appeared between groups (P < 0.05). The fracture toughness of TT, ST, and inCoris ZI after sintering was (4.87±0.07), (6.17±0.10), and (6.42±0.08) MPa·m1/2,respectively, and there were significant differences between groups (P < 0.05). The biaxial bending strength of TT, ST, and inCoris ZI after sintering was (624.41±92.01), (966.01±58.86), and (1 154.83±49.79) MPa, respectively. The biaxial bending strength of TT was significantly lower than that of ST and inCoris ZI (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between ST and inCoris ZI (P > 0.05). Therefore, the mechanical properties of ST and inCoris ZI under chairside rapid sintering can meet the clinical requirements, while TT needs to meet proper clinical indications.

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Effect of dental ceramic alloys on the expression of apoptosis-related signal proteins in the oral buccal mucosa of golden hamsters
Chen Run, Qiu Bingyan, Jiang Lei, Pan Yu, Wang Yinghui, Cheng Hui. Effect of dental ceramic alloys on the expression of apoptosis-related signal proteins in the oral buccal mucosa of golden hamsters[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 883-887.

BACKGROUND: Dental porcelain alloys hold different levels of cytotoxicity, which can lead to cell apoptosis. However, the in vitro researches on dental ceramic alloy causing apoptosis are mainly conducted, in which the oral environment cannot be simulated well.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of dental ceramic alloys on apoptotic protein expression in the oral buccal mucosa of golden hamsters.
METHODS: Thirty-six 60-70-day-old male golden hamsters provided by Beijing Vital River Laboratory Animal Technology Co., Ltd. were randomly divided into six groups. Five kinds of dental ceramic alloys (nickel-chromium, cobalt chromium, CPTi, palladium based and gold-platinum alloys) and polypropylene (negative control) were fixed on the oral mucosa of golden hamsters in corresponding groups. The mucosae contacting with the specimens were removed at 14 and 28 days, respectively. The protein expression levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-8, and Caspase-9 in the buccal mucosa were detected by western blot assay.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) At 14 and 28 days of fixation, there was no significant difference in the Caspase-3 protein level between gold-platinum alloy group and negative control groups (P > 0.05), and the level of Caspase-3 protein in the remaining four groups was significantly higher than that in the negative control group (P < 0.05). (2) At 14 days, the Caspase-8 protein level in each group was significantly higher than that in the negative control group (P < 0.05). After 28 days of fixation, the protein level of Caspase-8 in the nickel-chromium and palladium group was higher than that in the negative control group (P < 0.05), while the protein level of Caspase-8 in the other groups was not significantly different from that in the negative control group (P > 0.05). (3) At 14 days, the Caspase-9 protein level in each group was higher than that in the negative control group (P < 0.05). At 28 days, there was no significant difference in the Caspase-9 protein level between cobalt-chromium and negative control groups (P > 0.05), while the Caspase-9 protein level in the remaining groups was higher than that in the negative control group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the use of five dental alloys can upregulate the levels of apoptosis-related signal molecules to different degrees.  
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Osseointegration induced by beta-tricalcium phosphate loaded with advanced platelet-rich fibrin
Liu Dan, Min Changqin, Lu Shuai, Chen Yue, Sun Yong. Osseointegration induced by beta-tricalcium phosphate loaded with advanced platelet-rich fibrin[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 888-893.

BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have shown that β-tricalcium phosphate loaded with advanced platelet-rich fibrin can induce bone formation and promote bone repair, which is better than β-tricalcium phosphate or advanced platelet-rich fibrin alone. 

OBJECTIVE: To further explore the osseointegration properties of newly formed bone induced by β-tricalcium phosphate loaded with advanced platelet-rich fibrin.
METHODS: Eighteen Japanese rabbits provided by Chengdu Dashuo Biotechnology Co., Ltd. in China were used for establishing the bilateral femoral condyle defect models (6 mm in diameter and 10 mm in depth). There were three groups implanted with advanced platelet-rich fibrin, β-tricalcium phosphate or β-tricalcium phosphate loaded with advanced platelet-rich fibrin (mass ratio 1:1) composite, respectively. At 3 months after implantation, the DIO implant was implanted. The newly bone samples with the implants were then obtained to perform micro-CT and push-out test of implants at 4 and 12 weeks. The osteogenic properties and maximum load of the implant-bone interface were detected.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Micro-CT findings revealed that the amount of newly formed bone in each group was increased with time, which was significantly higher in the combined group than the other two groups at 4 and 12 weeks after implantation (P < 0.05). Results from the push-out test of implants showed that as time went on, the maximum push strength of each group was increased, which was significantly higher in the combined group than in the other two groups at 4 and 12 weeks after implantation (P < 0.05). In summary, the combined strength of the implant-bone interface of β-tricalcium phosphate loaded with advanced platelet-rich fibrin is superior to that of advanced platelet-rich fibrin or β-tricalcium phosphate.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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      药物控释材料 drug delivery materials
Repair of bone defects due to chronic osteomyelitis in rabbits using nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan scaffold carrying vancomycin/polyactic-co-glycolic acid sustained-release microspheres combined with autologous red bone marrow
Xiang Bingyan, Li Peng, Bo Fan, Zhou Sirui . Repair of bone defects due to chronic osteomyelitis in rabbits using nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan scaffold carrying vancomycin/polyactic-co-glycolic acid sustained-release microspheres combined with autologous red bone marrow[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 843-848.

BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have confirmed that vancomycin sustained-release microspheres exert satisfactory therapeutic effect on chronic osteomyelitis in rabbits. Nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan (nHA/CS) has good biocompatibility, degradability and osteogenic induction. Autologous red bone marrow can be used as a seed cell source combined with nHA/CS scaffold to repair rabbit tibia bone defects. Therefore, the combined effects of the three materials in the repair of rabbit chronic osteomyelitis bone defects need a further investigation.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy and feasibility of nHA/CS scaffold carrying vancomycin/polyactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) sustained-release microspheres combined with autologous red bone marrow in the repair of chronic osteomyelitis bone defects in rabbits.
METHODS: Vancomycin/PLGA sustained-release microspheres were prepared by water oil and water emulsion method. The nHA/CS scaffolds carrying vancomycin/PLGA sustained-release microspheres were prepared by vacuum freeze drying, and mechanical properties and vancomycin release of the scaffold were determined. Twenty 5-month-old New Zealand white rabbits provided by Laboratory Animal Centre of Daping Hospital of Third Military Medical University were selected for establishing the chronic osteomyelitis bone defect model by intramedullary infection of Staphylococcus aureus into the left tibia. The model rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: group A was only given only for debridement treatment; in group B, the nHA/CS scaffold was implanted after debridement; in group C, nHA/CS scaffolds carrying vancomycin/PLGA sustained-release microspheres were implanted after debridement; in group D, nHA/CS scaffolds carrying vancomycin/PLGA microspheres and autologous red bone marrow were implanted after debridement. At 3 months after implantation, the repair effect was observed by X-ray and hematoxylin-eosin staining.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The nHA/CS scaffolds carrying vancomycin/PLGA sustained-release microspheres held good biomechanical properties and drug sustained release. At 3 months after implantation, X-ray revealed that the defect region in the groups A and B had no obvious improvement, and there were still bone destruction and periosteal reaction. The group C showed the formation of the new bone, the defect area was slightly blurred, but the defect still existed. In the group D, new bone formed, the defect area became blurred, the density was slightly high, and the periosteum reaction disappeared. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed the bone trabecular disorder and more damage in the groups A and B. The bone trabecula was neatly arranged and less damaged in the groups C and D, and especially the group D had thickened bone trabecula arranged regularly. These results indicate that nHA/CS scaffolds carrying vancomycin/PLGA sustained-release microspheres combined with autologous red bone marrow exhibit good outcomes in repairing the bone defect due to chronic osteomyelitis in rabbits.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Influence of different wear particles on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro
Li Peng, Yang Shuye, Zhang Kai, Jia Long, Du Gangqiang, Liu Dong, Zhang Xinjun, Zhang Degang, Wang Zhigang. Influence of different wear particles on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 894-900.

BACKGROUND: After artificial joint replacement, daily activities lead to the production of a large number of titanium 6 aluminium 4 vanadium (Ti6Al4V), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE) and chromium-cobalt alloy (Co-Cr) particles, activating monocytes to release a large number of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including a series of biological cascade reactions, such as inducing bone dissolution and forming pseudo-granuloma, and eventually leading to aseptic loosening of the prosthesis.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Ti6Al4V, PMMA, UHMWPE and Co-Cr particles on tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 in the human peripheral blood monocytes cultured in vitro and to explore the underlying mechanism of aseptic loosening of the prosthesis by inducing bone dissolution.
METHODS: Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with Ti6Al4V, PMMA, UHMWPE and Co-Cr particles at different concentrations. After 72 hours of culture, ELISA technique was utilized to quantify the secretion of different cytokines includes tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 and interleukin-6. We observed the influence of different wear particle concentrations and particle properties on the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Cell viability exceeded 95% for all groups, except for 87% in the Co-Cr group when the particle/cell ratio was
1 000. Compared with the naive mononuclear cells (particle/cell ratio of 0), the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 in the activated mononuclear cells increased significantly when the particle/cell ratio was 10, 100 and 1 000 (P < 0.05). Ti6Al4V, PMMA and UHMWPE particles stimulated human mononuclear cells to overexpress tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 and interleukin-6, which were positively correlated with the concentration of particles. However, when the Co-Cr particle/cells ratio was 1 000, the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 were decreased. During the osteolysis reaction, Ti6Al4V particles had strongest biological activity, followed by Co-Cr and PMMA particles, and the biological activity of UHMWPE particles was lowest. Ti6Al4V, PMMA, UHMWPE and Co-Cr particles showed dose-dependent effects on the human peripheral blood mononuclear factors during the osteolysis.  
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      细胞外基质材料 extracellular matrix materials
Acquistion of a suitable extracellular matrix scaffold for tissue-engineered small-diameter blood vessel using a novel decellularization protocol
Pu Lei, Pan Xingna, Zhang Jing, Wu Jian, Li Yaxiong, Yang Yingnan. Acquistion of a suitable extracellular matrix scaffold for tissue-engineered small-diameter blood vessel using a novel decellularization protocol[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 855-862.

BACKGROUND: A proper scaffold is the basis for construction of tissue-engineered small diameter blood vessels. Preliminary study has shown non-ionic detergents with limited effects of decellularization, and combined application of ionic detergents exhibits more effective decellularization.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of different preferable methods for preparing porcine carotid artery derived extracellular matrix scaffold, and to explore the optimal preparation method.
METHODS: Porcine carotid arteries (n=30) were obtained and randomized into five groups (n=6 per group). Then porcine carotid arteries were decellularized, followed by treatment with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 1% sodium deoxycholate (group B), 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 0.5% sodium deoxycholate (group C), 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 1% Triton X-100 (group D), 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 0.5% Triton X-100 (group E). Native procine carotid aitery served as control (group A). Tissue samples of each group underwent hematoxylin-eosin staining, and Movat’s pentachrome staining, scanning electron microscope, immunohistochemistry and biomechanical test.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Movat’s staining revealed that the cellular components were completely removed in the groups B and C; however, cellular residues were visualized in the groups D and E. Under the scanning electron microscope collagen and elastin fiber bundles were well preserved in the decellularization groups; however, the morphology and size of porous structure in the group B were superior to those in the groups C, D and E. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that the xenogeneic antigen, α-1,3-Gal, expressed in the decellularization groups; however, the expression of α-1,3-Gal was lower in the group B than the other groups. Biomechanical test indicated that burst pressure, suture-holding capacity and suture-holding strength were significantly decreased in the decellularization groups compared with group A (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the compliance, longitudinal elongation at brake, circumferential ultimate tensile stress, circumferential elongation at break and circumferential Young’s modulus compared with control group (P > 0.05). Decellularization caused a significant decrease in the longitudinal ultimate tensile stress and longitudinal Young’s modulus in the decellularization groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the longitudinal ultimate tensile stress and longitudinal Young’s modulus in the groups B and C were significantly lower than those in the groups D and E (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the novel decellularization method based on 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 1% sodium deoxycholate optimizes the extracellular matrix scaffold for the construction of tissue-engineered small-diameter blood vessel.

 

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Preparation and properties of recombinant collagen sponge
He Yue, Hou Zengmiao, Li Xiaoying, Gao En, Liu Jianli, Zhao Jinli. Preparation and properties of recombinant collagen sponge[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 912-916.

BACKGROUND: Recombinant collagen has good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, but it has the disadvantages of strong solubility and low mechanical strength. Chemical crosslinking can significantly improve the toughness, mechanical strength and degradation resistance of the material.

OBJECTIVE: To prepare recombinant collagen sponge and to evaluate its physicochemical properties and safety.
METHODS: The recombinant collagen was obtained via microbial fermentation and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. The porous recombinant collagen sponge was finally obtained by freeze-drying in the mold. The water absorption, porosity and crosslinking agent residual of the recombinant collagen sponge were detected. The surface morphology of the recombinant collagen sponge before and after cross-linking was observed by scanning electron microscope. The changes in recombinant collagen structures before and after cross-linking were compared by infrared spectrometer. L929 cells were cultured with cross-linked recombinant collagen sponge extract. At 68 hours after culture, the relative proliferation rate of the cells was detected by MTT, and the cytotoxicity of cross-linked recombinant collagen sponge was evaluated.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The water absorption of the cross-linked collagen sponge was (2 903.83±47.90)% and the average porosity was over 85%. (2) Under the scanning electron microscope, the pores of the collagen sponge were honeycomb and dense before cross-linking. After cross-linking, the pores of the collagen sponge were large and bridged bond linkage of laminar layer structure could be seen, and also the large folds could be seen in the longitudinal direction. (3) There was no obvious change in the characteristic chemical structure of the recombinant collagen sponge after cross-linking. (4) The relative proliferation rate of L929 cells was 84% after culture in cross-linked recombinant collagen sponge extract, and the cytotoxicity was level 1, indicating the biological safety was good. To conclude, the recombinant collagen sponge with glutaraldehyde cross-linking shows stable physicochemical properties and good biocompatibility.  
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      膜生物材料 membrane biomaterials
Construction and biocompatibility of blood biofilms based on electrospinning technology
Sun Yu, Zou Qiang, Li Xuanze, Wu Zhanyu, Yang Long, Wang Jianji, Liu Qin, Ma Minxian, Ye Chuan. Construction and biocompatibility of blood biofilms based on electrospinning technology[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 901-905.

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that fibrinogen can serve as tissue engineering scaffold material. Therefore, the reuse of fibrinogen in the autologous blood can make the scaffold material which has non-immunogenicity and good biocompatibility.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the method of preparing blood biofilm using the electro-spinning technology and to evaluate the biocompatibility of the fibrinogen scaffold.
METHODS: Fibrinogen was purified out of the fresh blood after the procedures of separation, centrifugation, and purification, and then subjected to vacuum freeze drying (group A), low temperature spray drying (group B), and oven drying at 56 oC (group C). It was finally made into fiber film using the electrospinning technology. Contact angle of the three sets of scaffold materials was detected, and the three-dimensional structure of the scaffolds was observed under scanning electron microscope. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured with the three sets of scaffolds in vitro. Cell growth was observed using scanning electron microscope at 7 days of culture, and cell proliferation in the group B was detected using Alamar Blue kit at 1-4 days of culture.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Under the scanning electron microscope, fiber structure with uneven fiber thickness was observed, and a lot of droplet-like structures were also visible in the group A; the ordered multi-layer fiber structure with similar fiber diameter and pore size was observed in the group B, and only a small amount of droplet-like structures were detected; in the group C, there was no fiber structure, but the droplet-like structures of different sizes. (2) The contact angle of the scaffold material was (82±3)o in the group A, (67±5)o in the group B, and (80±3)o in the group C. (3) After 7 days of co-culture, the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells adhered to the scaffold materials in the three groups. The cells on the surface of group B were evenly distributed, which were adherent to the fiber surface and had relative regular nuclei. Only a small amount of cells grew onto the scaffolds in the groups A and C, especially in the group C, in which the cells had irregular nuclei and no fiber structure was observed. (4) The cells in the group B exhibited an increasing proliferation tendency as shown by the results of Alamar Blue experiment, and the cell growth was in good status. All these findings indicate that it is feasible to prepare the blood fibrinogen biofilm with good biocompatibility using the electrospinning technology. 

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Safety and efficacy of absorbable silk fibroin film for alveolar ridge preservation after extraction
Niu Xingyu, Xiao Yan, Gao Zhenjie, Sun Jingjing. Safety and efficacy of absorbable silk fibroin film for alveolar ridge preservation after extraction[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 906-911.

BACKGROUND: Absorbable silk fibroin film holds good mechanical strength, degradability, tissue affinity, and excellent barrier effect.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of absorbable silk fibroin film for the preservation of alveolar ridge after extraction.
METHODS: A total of 130 patients undergoing alveolar ridge preservation after extraction were randomly divided into two groups, and were then treated with absorbable silk fibroin film (trial group, n=65) or absorbable biofilm (control group, n=65) for the preservation of alveolar ridge after extraction. At 7 days postoperatively, the mucosal healing was observed. Cone-beam CT was taken at 7 days and 4 months postoperatively to observe the height and width of alveolar ridge in the treated area.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At 7 days after surgery, no infection or lower lip numbness occurred in the two groups. In the control group, one case showed window rupture, and one case of each group had membrane exposure. Compared with those at 7 days after surgery, the height and width of alveolar ridge were significantly decreased in both groups at 4 months after surgery (P < 0.05). The changes in the height and width of alveolar ridge and attachment width showed no significant differences between two groups. Our results manifest that the absorbable silk fibroin film is safe and effective for the preservation of alveolar ridge after extraction. The trial has been approved by the Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University (approval number: ZDY17002), and registered at the China Clinical Trial Center with registration number: ChiCTR-IOR-17025031.  
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      纳米生物材料 nanobiomaterials
Silver nanoparticle-doped tricalcium phosphate: in vitro and in vivo toxicity in rabbits
Cheng Jian, Zhang Jun, Guan Jie, Zeng Junkai, Zhao Xin, Xie Youzhuan. Silver nanoparticle-doped tricalcium phosphate: in vitro and in vivo toxicity in rabbits[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 917-923.

BACKGROUND: Previous studies by the research team found that 5% silver nanoparticle-doped β-tricalcium phosphate material has antibacterial properties and good biocompatibility.

OBJECTIVE: To study the biotoxicity of porous β-tricalcium phosphate containing 10% mass fraction of silver nanoparticles (10% SNPs-TCP) in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: (1) In vitro cytotoxicity: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from Sprague-Dawley rats (provided by Shanghai Xipuer-Beikai Animal Co., Ltd., China) were cultured with the extract containing 10% SNPs-TCP, porous TCP extract and normal tissue culture medium for 1, 3, 5, 7 days. Cell counting kit-8 method was used to detect cell proliferation. (2) In vivo toxicity: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits (provided by Shanghai Jiagan Biotechnology Co., Ltd., China) were used to make bone defects of the left femoral condyle (6 mm in diameter and 13 mm in depth), which were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was implanted with 10% SNPs-TCP, and the control group was implanted with single TCP. Twelve weeks after implantation, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to detect the concentration of silver ions in the blood and tissues. Hematoxylin-eosin staining sections were made to observe the pathological changes of various tissues and organs. Van Gieson staining sections were used to observe the tissue growth in the implantation area.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) There was no difference in cell proliferation between the TCP group, normal culture group and 10% SNPs-TCP group at different time points (P < 0.05). (2) The concentration of silver ions in the blood, heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney of the experimental and control groups was less than 0.1×10-6, which was less than the highest concentration of silver ions (0.5×10-6)in the human body specified by the WHO. (3) There were no obvious pathological changes in the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney sections of the experimental and control groups. (4) The contours of the implantation materials in the experimental and control groups could be distinguished. New bone tissues stained with red were around the materials. A large amount of red-stained new bone tissues were visible inside the porous structure of the materials. There was no significant difference in the distribution of new bone tissue in the porous structure of the two groups of materials. To conclude, the 10% SNPs-TCP has no obvious cytotoxicity and toxicity in animals, and has good biocompatibility.

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Poly(lactid-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with ropivacaine: preparation and in vivo release in animals
Tian Hongju, Chen Zhongqing. Poly(lactid-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with ropivacaine: preparation and in vivo release in animals[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 924-929.

BACKGROUND: Synthesis of ropivacaine-loaded poly(lactid-co-glycolide) copolymer microsphere and its pharmacokinetics have been studied preliminarily, and we have confirmed its effectiveness. However, its large size and tissue simulation limit its application.

OBJECTIVE: To prepare poly(lactid-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with ropivacaine and to study their particle characteristics, in vivo release characteristics and toxicity.
METHODS: Poly(lactid-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with ropivacaine were prepared with poly(lactid-co-glycolide) as carriers by the water-in-oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The micromeritic characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as the particle size, loading and entrapment efficiency were taken as parameters for evaluating. One hundred Kunming mice provided by the Laboratory Animal Centre of Southern Medical University in China were randomized into experimental and control groups, and then were subcutaneously injected with poly(lactid-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with ropivacaine and 0.5% ropivacaine, respectively. Blood concentration monitoring was performed at 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 18, 24, 36 and 48 hours after administration. Drug release was observed in vivo, and pathological examinations were performed on the injection site and main body organs to study its tissue toxicity.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The poly(lactid-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with ropivacaine were prepared. The average particle size was (73.5±16.7) nm, the drug loading efficiency was (6.07±0.22)%, and the encapsulation efficiency was (62.73±4.83)%. The blood drug concentration in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P=0.00). The drug retention time in the control and experimental groups was 6 and 48 hours, respectively, indicating the drug release sustained. The mice in the experimental group appeared with mild inflammation in the injection site, and no obvious pathological changes in major organs or necrotic cells occurred. To conclude, poly(lactid-co-glycolide) nanoparticles loaded with ropivacaine can be successfully prepared, and can achieve sustained-release in animals, and have low toxicity.  
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      材料生物相容性 material biocompatibility
Preparation and in vitro biocompatibility of a novel ternary biomaterial, yttria-stabilized zirconia reinforced nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66
Li Yuling, Jiang Ke, Chen Lu, Yu Peng, Chen Qian, Qiao Bo, Jiang Dianming. Preparation and in vitro biocompatibility of a novel ternary biomaterial, yttria-stabilized zirconia reinforced nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 930-935.

BACKGROUND: Nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (nHA/PA66) composite materials possess high bionic properties and exert biological activity by directly combining with host bone, but it lacks sufficient mechanical strength.

OBJECTIVE: To prepare a novel ternary biomaterial composed of nHA/PA66/yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (YTZ), and to investigate its mechanical properties and biocompatibility.
METHODS: The biomaterial was prepared by two-step approach, and the mass ratio of nano-hydroxyapatite to yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia was 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, and 60:40, respectively. The characterization of nHA/PA66/YTZ was observed by scanning electron microscope. The mechanical parameters of nHA/PA66/YTZ including bending strength, tensile strength, compressive strength, elastic modulus and breaking elongation were tested to evaluate its mechanical properties. The mechanical properties were evaluated by the mechanical tester to select composite materials with the optimum mass ratio applied to the following experiments. The MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured by the cell-culture medium (blank control group), nHA/PA66 material extract (control group), nHA/PA66/YTZ material extract (experimental group). The cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 assay. The nHA/PA66 material (control group) and nHA/PA66/YTZ material (experimental group) were respectively co-cultured with MC3T3-E1 cells. The adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the surface of composite materials were observed by the laser scanning confocal microscope after 24 hours.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The scanning electron microscope showed that YTZ grains filled the gaps between the original nano-hydroxyapatite grains and the nHA/YTZ was evenly dispersed in the matrix of polyamide 66. The biomechanical test revealed that the compressive strength, bending strength, tensile strength, elongation at break and elastic modulus were the highest at 60:40 of the mass ratio of nHA and YTZ, while the mechanical properties were optimal, which could be chosen for the cell compatibility experiments. Cell counting kit-8 assay showed that there was no significant difference in the cell proliferation among groups as the time expended and the number of cells in each group increased. The laser scanning confocal microscope displayed that the cells showed fusion, agglomeration and stratification and more actin filaments in themselves on nHA/PA66/YTZ composite material. The cells had monolayer and dispersion on nHA/PA66 composite material. The number of cells and actin filaments in cells were less than those in the group of nHA/PA66/YTZ. These results showed that the ternary composite materials of nHA/PA66/YTZ exhibit good mechanical properties, biological safety, and biocompatibility in vitro experiment.  
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Construction and in vitro evaluation of a biodegradable cationic gene delivery system based on hyperbranched polyamidoamine
Wang Yang, Nie Jinshan, Gu Zhun, Zhu Kai. Construction and in vitro evaluation of a biodegradable cationic gene delivery system based on hyperbranched polyamidoamine[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 936-944.
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In vitro enzymatic degradation of poly(trimethylene carbonate): influencing factors and their effects
Li Wuyuntana, Zhao Lingyan, Zhang Wei, Xia Yuan, Yang Liqun. In vitro enzymatic degradation of poly(trimethylene carbonate): influencing factors and their effects[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 945-950.

BACKGROUND: Poly(trimethylene carbonate) has great potential in clinical applications due to the excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. Little is reported on the factors influencing the in vitro enzymatic degradation of poly(trimethylene carbonate) and the underlying mechanism.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the in vitro enzymatic degradation of poly(trimethylene carbonate), and to explore the influencing factors and their effects on the poly(trimethylene carbonate) degradation.
METHODS: poly(trimethylene carbonate) homopolymers and copolymers were prepared by ring-opening polymerization. The molecular mass of the two homopolymers was 135 and 256 kDa, respectively. The molecular mass of the copolymers was 238 kDa. The homopolymer of 256 kDa was made into two shapes (rods and films), and the other two samples were shaped into rods. The in vitro enzymatic degradation of poly(trimethylene carbonate) was conducted in lipase solutions, the homopolymer samples were taken out at 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 weeks, and the copolymer samples were taken at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days. The mass loss and degradation rate constant were measured.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The molecular mass and shape as well as molar ratio played important roles on the in vitro enzymatic degradation behavior of poly(trimethylene carbonate). As the molecular mass increased from 135 to 256 kDa, the degradation rate constant of poly(trimethylene carbonate) homopolymer increased from 1.46% to 3.81%, indicating that the higher the molecular mass, the higher degradation rate of poly(trimethylene carbonate). The poly(trimethylene carbonate) film presented with higher degradation rate than the cylinder one with the same molecular weight, and the degradation rate constant increased from 3.81% to 9.16% as the shape of poly(trimethylene carbonate) with a molecular weight of 256 kDa changed from rods to films. The introduction of polycaprolactone segment accelerated the degradation rate of poly(trimethylene carbonate). The degradation rate constant increased from 3.81% to14.49% as the 50 mol% caprolactone content was introduced into the structure of poly(trimethylene carbonate) (256 kDa). In summary, the order of factors influencing the degradation rate of poly(trimethylene carbonate) is as follows: copolymer composition > shape > molecular mass.

 

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      材料力学及表面改性 material mechanics and surface modification
Preparation of acellular vascular scaffold using Triton-x100 and salvianolic acid B and its biomechanical performance
Zhao Liang, Li Xiafei, Zhou Kun, Yan Huanhuan, Zhang Qiqing. Preparation of acellular vascular scaffold using Triton-x100 and salvianolic acid B and its biomechanical performance[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 951-956.

BACKGROUND: The acellular vascular scaffold has excellent properties, but its biomechanical properties have been reduced to varying degrees during preparation.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the application prospect of salvianolic acid B in the tissue-engineered preparation of acellular vascular scaffold.
METHODS: The rat thoracic aorta was decellularized using Triton-x100 alone (Tx group) or combined with salvianolic acid B (Tx-sal group) to prepare acellular vascular scaffolds. Morphology of the two groups of acellular vascular scaffolds was observed. Measurements of tissue thickness, porosity and biomechanical properties were conducted, and changes in the morphology of acellular vascular scaffolds were compared between two groups.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The use of salvianolic acid B treatment had no effect on the wall thickness and porosity of acellular vascular scaffolds, and there was no significant difference between the Tx group and Tx-sal group (P > 0.05). There was also no significant change in the scaffold morphology. Compared with the Tx group, the acellular vascular scaffold in the Tx-sal group was better to retain collagen fibers and elastic fibers of the vessel wall. The biomechanical indicators in the Tx-sal gorup such as tensile strength, maximum deformation, elongation at break, burst pressure, and suture strength were all superior to those in the Tx group (P < 0.05). Therefore, Triton-x100 combined with salvianolic acid B treatment can produce acellular vascular materials with good decellularization and excellent biomechanical properties. 
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Intestinal absorption characteristics of curcumin hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in rats: an analysis using one-way perfusion method
Luo Jianchun, Guo Qi, Zhang Min, Zhong Meng, Wan Shengli, Zhang Jingqing. Intestinal absorption characteristics of curcumin hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin in rats: an analysis using one-way perfusion method[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 957-962.

BACKGROUND: Curcumin has good anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects, but which is limited for the low solubility.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the intestinal absorption characteristics of curcumin hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and curcumin in rats.
METHODS: The curcumin hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was prepared by grinding method, and the solubility of curcumin hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and curcumin was detected. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish a one-way perfusion model of intestinal segment (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon), and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was given curcumin hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, and the control group was perfused with curcumin suspension. The absorption rate (Ka) and effective permeability (Papp) of curcumin hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and curcumin at each intestinal segment were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The solubility of curcumin hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in water was increased by 33.68 times compared with that of curcumin. The absorption rate constant (Ka) of curcumin hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was ranked as follows: duodenum > ileum > jejunum > colon, and the effective permeability (Papp) was ranked as follows: colon > duodenum > ileum > jejunum, and the absorption in the intestines was significantly higher than that of curcumin (P < 0.05). In summary, curcumin hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin can obviously improve the absorption of curcumin in the intestines of rats. 

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      生物材料综述 biomaterial review
Application and progress of bioactive scaffolds in bone tissue engineering
Leng Yi, Li Zuhao, Ren Guangkai, Wang Zhonghan, Gao Chaohua, Shi Chenyu, Liu He, Wu Dankai. Application and progress of bioactive scaffolds in bone tissue engineering[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 963-970.

BACKGROUND: With the advancement of bio-printing technology and chemical synthesis technology, the incorporation of these technologies into tissue engineering scaffolds for promoting bone regeneration has become a hot topic in current research.

OBJECTIVE: To introduce bioactive bone tissue engineering scaffolds, and to discuss and summarize the application of different scaffold materials in promoting bone regeneration and treating bone defects.
METHODS: The first author searched PubMed, Web of Science, SpringerLink, and Medline databases in July to September 2018 for relevant articles published from 2003 to 2018 using the keywords of “bone tissue engineer,3D-printed, scaffold, composite scaffold”. Initially, 237 articles were retrieved, and only 70 articles were eligible for result analysis.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Bioactive scaffolds mainly include metal composite scaffolds, bioceramic composite scaffolds and polymer composite scaffolds, which have been used in bone tissue engineering. Several examples of successful bone and cartilage construction with clinical transformation have been developed, in which bioceramic and polymer composites may be the most successful due to their similar tissue composition and good biocompatibility with natural bone. And if combined with existing bioactive materials, growth factors, functionalization techniques and biomimetic scaffold designs, the potential for creating complex bone tissue engineering scaffolds for patient-specific applications in the future is enormous. This also provides hope for the treatment of a variety of challenging diseases, including bone tumor, osteoporosis and severe bone defects. 

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Maxillary sinus floor augmentation: with or without bone grafting
Li Fang, Cheng Yuting, Huang Xiaolin, Zhou Qian, Wu Chao, Shi Qianhui, Wang Yong, Liao Jian. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation: with or without bone grafting[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 971-977.

BACKGROUND: Insufficient bone mass in the posterior maxilla region often increases the difficulty of dental implantation. The application of maxillary sinus floor elevation successfully solves this problem. In the surgery, bone grafting can be used to obtain sufficient bone mass. However, nonuse of graft materials can shorten the cycle of patient’s treatment and reduce trauma and cost.

OBJECTIVE: Combining the latest relevant research trends, to review the advances in the study of maxillary sinus floor elevation with and without bone grafting.
METHODS: The first author searched PubMed, VIP, WanFang and CNKI databases using computer for relevant articles published from January 1985 to August 2018. The key words were “dental implant, maxillary sinus, bone augmentation, bone substitute” in English and Chinese, respectively. Finally, 78 articles were included in result analysis after screening and summarizing.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Ideal results can be achieved in the maxillary sinus floor elevation with or without simultaneous bone grafting. In addition, the nonuse of grafting materials have the advantages of simplifying surgical procedures, shortening treatment cycles, reducing trauma and pain, reducing treatment costs, reducing complications and failure rates, thus gaining the favor of doctors and patients. Therefore, the maxillary sinus floor elevation without simultaneous bone grafting will be the primary choice of the doctors engaged in dental implantation in the future.

中国组织工程研究杂志出版内容重点:生物材料;骨生物材料; 口腔生物材料; 纳米材料; 缓释材料; 材料相容性;组织工程

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Development of everolimus-eluting stents
Ling Hao, Wang Bao, Wu Lixia, Yan Hui, Song Chunli. Development of everolimus-eluting stents[J]. Chinese Journal of Tissue Engineering Research, 2019, 23(6): 978-984.

BACKGROUND: Drug-eluting stents, which combine the mechanical properties of metal stents with the specificity of an anti-proliferative drug, can effectively reduce the incidence of stent injury, restenosis and thrombosis, and reduce the risk of late adverse events.

OBJECTIVE: To review the progress of everolimus-eluting stents.
METHODS: The key words of “everolimus, stent, drug-eluting stents, everolimus drug-eluting stents” were used for literature retrieval in CNKI, PubMed and EMBASE databases. Unrelated, old and duplicated literatures were excluded, and 61 retained literatures were summarized, analyzed and summarized.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Cobalt chromium-everolimus eluting stent is the most common everolimus-eluting stent, which can effectively inhibit intimal hyperplasia and inflammation and reduce the incidence of stent thrombosis. Although the emergence of new everolimus-eluting stents has solved some problems of existing everolimus-eluting stents, such as platelet adhesion, smooth muscle cell proliferation, vasomotion and vascular endothelial cell viability, there are still some problems that need to be further studied.  
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